Second, The Establishment of Pilot Research and the Beginning of Cooperation among NATO Allies
1969Year9Month8On the 2nd, the preparatory meeting of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee was held.At the meeting, for the first time, representatives of various countries held a three-day extensive discussion on the establishment of the Committee.After the meeting, the Preparatory Committee, on the basis of national representativesTable of the statement, submitted to the North Atlantic Council a preliminary report and work intention list.Among them, the representative of the United States volunteered to carry out pilot studies on road safety, disaster relief and air pollution control, while Turkey was willing to participate in the pilot studies on air pollution control as a joint pilot country.In fact, the United States and its allies know very well that whether these pilot studies can be put into practice depends on the smooth formation of the Committee.In the meantime, although Britain and other countries questioned and even opposed it, under the lobbying of the U.S. Government and NATO Secretary General Manlio·Brosio (Manlio Brosio) active communication with the allies,1969Year11Month6On the 2nd, the North Atlantic Council finally approved the establishment of the Modern Social Challenges Committee and agreed to12Month8—10The first plenary meeting was held on the 2nd.
The decision of the North Atlantic Council inspired the actions of the United States and its allies.U.S. President’s Urban Adviser Daniel·Moynihan (Daniel P.Moynihan) was appointed as the first coordinator on the committee to represent the United States, while making intensive preparations for the first meeting.In order to make presentations available to delegations and implementing agencies in advance, Having a more in-depth understanding of the pilot study will further help countries to have in-depth discussions on substantive issues at the meeting. The United States drafted a statement report on air pollution as early as one week before the meeting and informed its NATO representatives to transmit the report to delegations and other implementing agencies of the host government.At the same time, the U.S. Government is also actively seeking the support of the Turkish government, which is interested in serving as a joint pilot country.
1969Year12Month8On the 2nd, the first meeting of the Committee was held in Brussels as scheduled.NATO Secretary General Brosio delivered the opening speech, borrowing Dickens’“This is the worst time and the best time.”This paper introduces environmental pollution problems such as air, sea and soil, and urban social problems such as traffic congestion, diseases and crimes, and puts forward three issues to be decided at this meeting:The organization of future activities, research topics and how pilot studies in various countries will be carried out.9On the 2nd, the delegates mainly discussed the possible pilot research topics of the Committee, such as air pollution, water pollution, individual and group motives, and the relationship between scientific knowledge and political decision-making.Since the United States has done a lot of preparatory work before, the discussion on air pollution is particularly sufficient.
Facing the problem of air pollution, although countries around the world have successively formulated air pollution control plans, the assessment of the impact of air pollution on the environment is still in its infancy.Therefore, it is particularly necessary to clarify the current situation of air quality and predict the future trend of air quality.At the same time, considering that international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the European Community, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the Council of Europe, the World Health Organization and the World Meteorological Organization are also carrying out various attempts to deal with air pollution at the international level, Therefore, the representative of the United States suggested that the Committee should not duplicate the projects already being carried out by the above-mentioned organizations, but should play a complementary role.However, the United States hopes that the Committee can play a leading role on these two issues:One is to quickly solve the existing air pollution problem, and the other is to formulate long-term goals for protecting air quality in NATO participating countries.
According to this, the representative of the United States proposed to carry out a pilot study on air pollution control to jointly overcome the air pollution problems faced by NATO member countries.The United States is committed to playing a major coordinating role in the Committee. The National Air Pollution Control Administration provides management services and technical support for the research on behalf of the United States Government.NATO countries participating in the Committee’s pilot study are responsible for providing data for predicting emission trends, providing assistance in assessing existing air quality, and participating in the development of mathematical models for predicting air quality.The pilot study aims to achieve the following objectives:（1) Assess existing air quality and forecast1970—1990Air quality in;（2) Preparation of emission inventories and projections;（3) Provide technical documentation of United States standards and controls that can be used by NATO countries;（4) To provide a forum for collaborative activities related to the above-mentioned tasks, in particular with regard to modelling techniques applicable to air quality projections.
The U.S. Proposal quickly received a positive response from Turkey, agreeing to serve as a joint pilot country.In fact, Turkey’s positive response is not surprising. Ankara, Istanbul and Karabic, the industrial center of Turkey, all have serious air pollution problems.In particular Ankara,20Century50Air pollution was already very serious by the end of the s.Ankara was built on a plain surrounded by mountains. Originally, it was planned for a inhabitant to15A city of ten thousand people, and20Century60By the end of the # s, the population had reached150With 10,000 people and a dense population in the city center, Ankara needs continuous heating in the cold winter and is mainly heated by stoves. The central heating system provided by the newly-built apartments also uses lignite as fuel.Plus20Century60Since the mid-1990s, the number of cars in the city has increased dramatically, and the air pollution caused by motor vehicles has become more and more serious.In response to the air pollution in Ankara, the Turkish government has taken measures to rectify it, but with little effect.The U.S. Proposal just provides an opportunity for Turkey to use international forces to control its air pollution problem.After deliberation, the Modern Social Challenges Committee proposed to the North Atlantic Council the first batch of7A pilot study.Among them, the pilot countries will assume the main leadership and work responsibilities, supplemented by other interested NATO member countries as joint pilot countries.1970Year1Month28On the 2nd, the Council adopted the proposal.So far, air pollution control has officially become one of the first batch of pilot studies of the Committee.How to push forward the landing of the pilot study on air pollution control as soon as possible has been put on the agenda.
As the lead pilot country, the United States is the most active in starting the pilot research on air pollution control as soon as possible.Only a week after the North Atlantic Council approved the establishment of the Modern Social Challenges Committee, Moynihan wrote to Robert, director of the US Budget Office.·Mayo (Robert P.Mayo), it is hoped that it will designate a special project specialist who will be responsible for the U.S. As“Pilot countries”To participate in the funding of the Committee’s air pollution control and other pilot studies.At the same time, in order to ensure the ultimate success of President Nixon’s proposal, the departments on which the pilot study is mainly based are required to give necessary support.U.S. Ambassador to NATO Robert·Ellsworth (Robert Ellsworth) It is recommended that the pilot study be initiated and a work plan be drawn up as soon as possible.In his view, this can not only make full use of the enthusiasm of Member States during the first meeting of the Committee, but also the implementation of the pilot study can strongly prove the significance of the Committee’s activities.In addition to Turkey, the Federal Republic of Germany also agreed to serve as a joint pilot country.
Later, with the help of case studies of member cities, the development of air pollution assessment methods and the proposal of worldwide air quality standards are regarded as the first step for the Modern Social Challenge Committee to promote air pollution control.Turkey, as a joint pilot country, proposed that1970Year3Month9—12On the 2nd, an expert meeting on air pollution control was held in Ankara, and plans are being made to organize the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance, the Ministry of Agrometeorological Research, municipal authorities, etc.6More than 30 representatives from the department attended the meeting.As a pilot country, the United States also attaches great importance to the preparation of this conference.The United States Department of State suggested that, The working procedures of the meeting should be more flexible and reasonable. In addition to coming from pilot countries and joint pilot countries for air pollution control, delegates can also invite interested countries to participate in the meeting as observer countries. If they cannot participate, they should ensure that they know the progress made in the pilot study. At the same time, allies are very welcome to actively participate in the pilot study for air pollution control.
Under the active mobilization and lobbying of Turkey and the United States, after nearly two months of preparation, the air pollution control expert meeting was held in Turkey as scheduled.The Ministry held a meeting with experts from the United States, France, Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Turkey and other countries.Experts from various countries have held heated discussions on air pollution and its control.3Month10On the 2nd, experts from participating countries issued a statement:The level of air pollution in Ankara has reached a level that requires high attention and has seriously affected the city’s economic development, requiring immediate measures.The representatives of the United States, Turkey and the Federal Republic of Germany even believed that substantive actions were needed to establish worldwide air quality standards, which should become“Basic Needs”。In view of the problems found in the discussion,3Month11On the 2nd, the Expert Group put forward a proposal for action, recommending that the Modern Social Challenges Committee launch a long-term12In a month-long study, the study plans to use meteorological data to map Ankara’s pollution situation and improve the existing air collection network.Moreover, the United States, as a pilot country, will also select four experts each year to provide20US $10,000 to support the research work.
In addition to Ankara, Turkey, a joint pilot country, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, another joint pilot country, and St. Louis, a pilot country in the United States, are also case cities for air quality assessment studies.The three are the initial focus of evaluation research.Since then, as NATO allies have increased their interest in pilot research on air pollution control, Oslo in Norway, Rotterdam and Limburg in the Netherlands, Milan and Turin in Italy have5Three cities were also included in the evaluation study.At the same time, the choice of cities also takes into account factors such as city type, air pollution degree and pollution source. For example, Rotterdam’s air quality assessment study lasted for three years, mainly assessing the impact of large industrial cities and port cities on air quality, while Milan focused on the assessment and control of sulfur dioxide in industrial residential areas.Through the air quality assessment research of eight cities, including the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system, the determination of pollution sources and their locations through emissions, the modeling according to the statistical relationship between emissions and air quality, and the prediction of air quality, a database was finally formed.Through this database, air pollution control plans can be formulated accordingly.
At the same time, the pilot study also set up three expert groups to actively encourage and promote member countries to establish feasible air quality management programs.One is the Expert Group on Air Quality Standards, which is composed of experts from the pilot countries of the United States, the joint pilot countries of the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey, and observer countries such as Italy and France.1972—1973In # the group held meetings in Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, Bilthofen, Netherlands and Istanbul, Turkey, attracting representatives from eight NATO member states and Israel.At the same time, the Expert Group recognized that in order for NATO allies’ national air quality projects to be promoted in a timely and unified manner, internationally recognized standard documents must be promulgated.1971Since, based on the relevant air quality standards issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Expert Group has successively issued air quality standard documents for air pollutants such as sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, oxidants, etc.Among them, the standards on sulfur oxides, particulate matter and carbon monoxide are used as important references by the World Health Organization to formulate air quality guidelines and set air quality targets.Not only that, the World Health Organization has also set up a project to release more follow-up information after checking and reviewing several air pollutants released by NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee.The second is the Technical Control Expert Group, which is mainly responsible for the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, France, Italy, Turkey and the United States. Its responsibility is to carry out urban air quality assessment and issue air pollutant standard documents to provide necessary information and framework for the development of air pollution control technologies.Aiming at air pollutants such as sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, The Technical Control Expert Group collects the latest technologies and information to control the emission of various pollutants and releases the control technologies and methods of five pollutants from the main fixed emission sources, providing basic reference for NATO allies to formulate air pollution control plans and reduce the emission of fixed sources.The third is the Air Quality Model Expert Group, whose responsibility is to provide expert opinions on the design and application of the model for the pilot study.1970—1974In, it was held successively in Frankfurt, Federal Germany, Paris, France, Upper Useur, Federal Germany and Roskilde, Denmark.5Meeting of experts.Thanks to the efforts of the expert group, coupled with the careful setting of the theme of the meeting and the increasingly pragmatic format of the meeting such as workshops, the quality model expert meeting has aroused widespread interest in the international community including NATO allies.From1970Only in14People attended the Frankfurt Conference, to1974At the Roskilde Conference in Denmark, the number of participants has increased to67Total number of NATO allies and non-allies14He also sent invitations to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Japan.The expert meeting not only enables experts and representatives in the field of air quality modeling to exchange new technologies and ideas, but also acts as model designers and models.“Users”The platform for communication and communication has become an active international forum in the field of air quality models.In view of the effectiveness of the air quality modelling meeting,1974Year5In January, at the plenary meeting of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee, representatives of NATO allies agreed that the activities of the Air Quality Model Expert Group should continue.As a joint pilot country, the Federal Republic of Germany has committed itself to a follow-up project——Air quality modeling and assessment to continue to promote cooperation in air quality modeling.As the United States hopes, it is hoped that the actions of the Modern Society Challenge Committee will enable NATO countries to reach an agreement on air quality standards and eventually enable major NATO cities to implement these quality standards.“Model”。The activities of the three expert groups have effectively promoted cooperation among NATO allies in the construction of air quality standards, the development of air pollution control technologies and the development of air quality models, providing institutional support for air pollution control in various countries.