NATO and Trans-Atlantic Air Pollution Control (1969-1976)

2020-06-24 | By Historian | Filed in: Culture.

:: History of international relations·

NATO and Trans-Atlantic Air Pollution Control (1969-1976)

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is usually regarded as Europe and the United States.An international military and political organization established by the state to realize defense cooperation and political consultation.However, with the advent of the Cold War detente era and the rise of new social movements such as environmentalism,1969NATO was founded in20On the anniversary, the U.S. Government didAn astonishing event, Initiate and Promote the Formation of NATOModern Social Challenges CommitteeThe Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society)。Different from NATO’s previous overall positioning, The purpose of the new committee is to bring together the talents, technologies and resources of NATO allies to jointly deal with the problems of the advanced technology era, especially social affairs such as environmental pollution, and to urge nation-states and the international community to take actions through remedial measures to improve the quality of life of the people and promote the harmonious coexistence of human beings and nature.Taking this as a carrier, the United States and NATO allies tookPilot studypilot study) to promote NATO’s actions in the field of social affairs, which is regarded as NATO’s function in addition to defense cooperation and political consultation.Third Dimension
In this regard, although the participants at that time had some descriptions, they mostly focused on showing the process of NATO’s functional adjustment. They did not pay much attention to the concrete promotion of the pilot study of NATO’s Modern Social Challenge Committee, and did not put it into the context of the Cold War environmental history to examine the competition and cooperation among different interest stakeholders to a certain extent.It ignored NATO’s efforts and attempts in the field of social affairs during the Cold War.Compared with previous studies,2017Ivant·Hatzvasilio (Evanthis HatzivassiliouThe new book examines the establishment process and actions of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee in a more comprehensive way, which has made important contributions to a comprehensive understanding of NATO. However, it is vague about pilot studies or projects such as trans-Atlantic air pollution control.
In fact, NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee made air pollution control one of its priority issues within the framework of its pilot research from the very beginning of its establishment.The pilot study was conducted in1970Formally implemented in, to1974The target was basically reached in.In a short period of four years, the Committee has carried out a series of discussions, research and promotion activities, which have substantially promoted the trans-Atlantic air pollution control work. It is regarded as one of the most successful pilot studies of the Committee and has become an example for other pilot studies of the Committee.In the meantime, the United States, relying on the results of the pilot study, actively promoted cooperation with the Soviet Union in environmental protection fields such as air pollution control.This paper takes the air pollution control of transatlantic as the research object, Based on the archives of the U.S. State Department, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NATO, the British Foreign Office and other parties, This paper examines how and how a military and political organization participates in the work in the social field, and then discusses the new aspects of the history of environmental governance during the Cold War from a new perspective. In turn, it can also take this opportunity to have a glimpse of the social turn of NATO’s function and the adjustment of US-Soviet relations during the Cold War detente era.

First, The Prominence of Air Pollution and the New Proposal of Nixon Administration

Since its inception, NATO has noticed the importance of science and technology and has specially formedScientific CommitteeThe Science Committee), but its focus is to make science and technology better serve the military and security fields, rather than social or livelihood affairs.This is not only closely related to the trend of the international pattern in the early Cold War, but also an important symbol of NATO’s functional orientation.However, with the arrival of the Cold War detente era and the lack of favorable impression on NATO by the European public and the younger generation, environmental issues have been given priority attention as public issues in non-traditional security fields.EnvironmentThe label has gradually become a decisive step towards a new strategic concept for NATO.
20Century60In the late 1990s, air and water pollution problems caused extensive discussions in the industry, politics and the public. Rapid industrialization and rapid economic development forced all NATO countries to face the challenges brought about by environmental degradation.The development of modern science and technology not only enriches the material and cultural life of human beings, but also brings new problems intentionally or unintentionally, such as air pollution.The study found that the combustion of fossil fuels represented by coal, fuel oil and gasoline produces various waste gases, of which the most common pollutants are sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and hydrocarbons. The air is seriously polluted and poses more and more serious hazards to public health.One for the United States1969The # report on air pollution estimated that the global annual emissions of sulfur into the atmosphere were about22About one third of them come from man-made air pollution sources. Most of them are emitted into the atmosphere in the form of sulfur dioxide, while the rest are mainly emitted in the form of hydrogen sulfide.The report noted that as an important air pollution source, automobiles emit a large amount of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particles with lead as the main form.Data show that the world emits emissions into the atmosphere every year.23Billion tons of carbon monoxide, of which80%Originated from automobile exhaust, and at the same time about8,800Ten thousand tons of hydrocarbons also come from automobile exhaust.A car without pollution control equipment will emit about015%Nitrogen oxides,01%Hydrocarbons and35%Carbon monoxide.It is estimated that without control, even with the development of nuclear energy, the emission of sulfur oxides in the United States will be in the range of1968Year to1980It will increase by about double in the next few years, and by1990Annual emissions will be20Century60Three times as much as at the end of the s.The growth rate of sulfur oxide emissions in other NATO countries may be slightly slower than that in the United States, but air pollution caused by automobile exhaust emissions will grow faster than that in the United States.
Air pollution not only causes a serious decline in air quality, but also endangers human health.For example, the concentration of photochemical smog is closely related to the increase of respiratory diseases.Air pollution can cause emphysema and chronic bronchitis.In some areas, air pollution has become one of the causes of death of elderly patients and weakness of healthy individuals. Air pollution may even cause psychological stress in some subtle ways, especially in large cities.There is no denying that pollutants are also the source of property losses and vegetation destruction.Sulfur dioxide and some hydrocarbons can cause damage and even death to plants, ornamental trees and trees.The study found that the acid rain in Sweden may be caused by sulfur oxide emissions from industrial areas in Western and Central Europe, and particulate matter undoubtedly has an international impact on cloud formation and precipitation patterns.Under normal circumstances, carbon dioxide is not regarded as an air pollutant, but as its impact on the global climate continues to rise, the global attention to it is also increasing day by day.For generations, carbon dioxide has broughtGreenhouseThe effect may cause a sharp rise in global temperature, the impact on polar glaciers will further cause sea level rise, causing disastrous effects on coastal cities in the world, and the total heat released into the atmosphere by energy storage bodies may also cause a rise in global temperature.The continuous occurrence of air pollution pollution incidents and the harm they cause have aroused the high attention of governments and media in various countries, and have also aroused the environmental protection awareness of the general public to a certain extent.
Under the comprehensive influence and promotion of these factors, governments of various countries have successively issued laws and regulations on the prevention and control of air pollution.Such as1954In, the U.S. Federal government established an inter-departmental air pollution control committee, which consists of the Ministry of Health, Education and Welfare, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Interior, the Atomic Energy Commission, the National Science Foundation, etc.6The U.S. Federal government promulgated the Air Pollution Control Act the following year at its suggestion.1956Britain officially promulgated the world’s first Clean Air Act.1963In, the United States passed the Clean Air Act, which was followed by1965Year and Year1967The Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Act and the Air Quality Act were promulgated in.
There is no doubt that air pollution has threatened human health and the sustainable development of the country. It has become a major challenge that industrialized countries have to deal with. In addition, a series of other environmental problems have become Richard, who was about to enter the White House at that time.·One of the direct reasons why Nixon and his aides proposed NATO to form a new committee was also an important reason why the proposal was finally passed by NATO.
1969Year2Month24On the 2nd, President Nixon chose Brussels for his first state visit and was invited to address the North Atlantic Council meeting.He stressed that,We are all trying to deal with modern environmental problems, such as air pollution, water pollution and urban congestion, which are by-products of our advanced technology.Only by working together can we greatly enhance our ability to solve these problems.President Nixon showed his willingness to push forward NATO’s functional adjustment.Moreover, the Nixon administration regards the adjustment of NATO’s functions as an important part of the adjustment of US-EU relations.According to Nixon,No what needed a strong US-European relationship more than it does now.Therefore, when meeting with leaders of Belgium, Federal Germany, Italy, France and Britain and participating in the North Atlantic Council, he took every opportunity to discuss the alienation of the division of Western society.In his view, NATO member countries are all facing modern environmental problems such as air pollution and water pollution. Member countries must keep pace with the times and pass the new formation.A committee to meet the challenges of modern societyAnd make it a dynamic forum.Of course, the Nixon administration chose NATO not only because of the legal basis found in the second paragraph of the North Atlantic Treaty, but also because NATO has experience in solving similar problems.In addition, NATO has characteristics that most other international organizations do not have, such as being action-oriented and adapting to rapid changes.It is an important political link between Europe and North America.And it can attract the attention and response of the government at a higher level.
It is precisely out of the comprehensive consideration of the international and domestic factors at that time and the consideration of NATO’s own characteristics that,1969Year4Month10Japan, President Nixon founded NATO20In his speech at the anniversary meeting, he proposed the establishment of a new NATO organization.——The Modern Society Challenge Committee expects to use it to deal with environmental and disaster issues in the modern scientific and technological era, and use it as a catalyst to seek further remedial measures at the national and international levels, so as to strengthen US-EU relations, surmount the barriers of the Cold War and promote East-West cooperation.

Second, The Establishment of Pilot Research and the Beginning of Cooperation among NATO Allies

1969Year9Month8On the 2nd, the preparatory meeting of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee was held.At the meeting, for the first time, representatives of various countries held a three-day extensive discussion on the establishment of the Committee.After the meeting, the Preparatory Committee, on the basis of national representativesTable of the statement, submitted to the North Atlantic Council a preliminary report and work intention list.Among them, the representative of the United States volunteered to carry out pilot studies on road safety, disaster relief and air pollution control, while Turkey was willing to participate in the pilot studies on air pollution control as a joint pilot country.In fact, the United States and its allies know very well that whether these pilot studies can be put into practice depends on the smooth formation of the Committee.In the meantime, although Britain and other countries questioned and even opposed it, under the lobbying of the U.S. Government and NATO Secretary General Manlio·Brosio (Manlio Brosio) active communication with the allies,1969Year11Month6On the 2nd, the North Atlantic Council finally approved the establishment of the Modern Social Challenges Committee and agreed to12Month8—10The first plenary meeting was held on the 2nd.

The decision of the North Atlantic Council inspired the actions of the United States and its allies.U.S. President’s Urban Adviser Daniel·Moynihan (Daniel P.Moynihan) was appointed as the first coordinator on the committee to represent the United States, while making intensive preparations for the first meeting.In order to make presentations available to delegations and implementing agencies in advance, Having a more in-depth understanding of the pilot study will further help countries to have in-depth discussions on substantive issues at the meeting. The United States drafted a statement report on air pollution as early as one week before the meeting and informed its NATO representatives to transmit the report to delegations and other implementing agencies of the host government.At the same time, the U.S. Government is also actively seeking the support of the Turkish government, which is interested in serving as a joint pilot country.

1969Year12Month8On the 2nd, the first meeting of the Committee was held in Brussels as scheduled.NATO Secretary General Brosio delivered the opening speech, borrowing Dickens’This is the worst time and the best time.This paper introduces environmental pollution problems such as air, sea and soil, and urban social problems such as traffic congestion, diseases and crimes, and puts forward three issues to be decided at this meeting:The organization of future activities, research topics and how pilot studies in various countries will be carried out.9On the 2nd, the delegates mainly discussed the possible pilot research topics of the Committee, such as air pollution, water pollution, individual and group motives, and the relationship between scientific knowledge and political decision-making.Since the United States has done a lot of preparatory work before, the discussion on air pollution is particularly sufficient.

Facing the problem of air pollution, although countries around the world have successively formulated air pollution control plans, the assessment of the impact of air pollution on the environment is still in its infancy.Therefore, it is particularly necessary to clarify the current situation of air quality and predict the future trend of air quality.At the same time, considering that international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the European Community, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the Council of Europe, the World Health Organization and the World Meteorological Organization are also carrying out various attempts to deal with air pollution at the international level, Therefore, the representative of the United States suggested that the Committee should not duplicate the projects already being carried out by the above-mentioned organizations, but should play a complementary role.However, the United States hopes that the Committee can play a leading role on these two issues:One is to quickly solve the existing air pollution problem, and the other is to formulate long-term goals for protecting air quality in NATO participating countries.

According to this, the representative of the United States proposed to carry out a pilot study on air pollution control to jointly overcome the air pollution problems faced by NATO member countries.The United States is committed to playing a major coordinating role in the Committee. The National Air Pollution Control Administration provides management services and technical support for the research on behalf of the United States Government.NATO countries participating in the Committee’s pilot study are responsible for providing data for predicting emission trends, providing assistance in assessing existing air quality, and participating in the development of mathematical models for predicting air quality.The pilot study aims to achieve the following objectives:1) Assess existing air quality and forecast1970—1990Air quality in;2) Preparation of emission inventories and projections;3) Provide technical documentation of United States standards and controls that can be used by NATO countries;4) To provide a forum for collaborative activities related to the above-mentioned tasks, in particular with regard to modelling techniques applicable to air quality projections.

The U.S. Proposal quickly received a positive response from Turkey, agreeing to serve as a joint pilot country.In fact, Turkey’s positive response is not surprising. Ankara, Istanbul and Karabic, the industrial center of Turkey, all have serious air pollution problems.In particular Ankara,20Century50Air pollution was already very serious by the end of the s.Ankara was built on a plain surrounded by mountains. Originally, it was planned for a inhabitant to15A city of ten thousand people, and20Century60By the end of the # s, the population had reached150With 10,000 people and a dense population in the city center, Ankara needs continuous heating in the cold winter and is mainly heated by stoves. The central heating system provided by the newly-built apartments also uses lignite as fuel.Plus20Century60Since the mid-1990s, the number of cars in the city has increased dramatically, and the air pollution caused by motor vehicles has become more and more serious.In response to the air pollution in Ankara, the Turkish government has taken measures to rectify it, but with little effect.The U.S. Proposal just provides an opportunity for Turkey to use international forces to control its air pollution problem.After deliberation, the Modern Social Challenges Committee proposed to the North Atlantic Council the first batch of7A pilot study.Among them, the pilot countries will assume the main leadership and work responsibilities, supplemented by other interested NATO member countries as joint pilot countries.1970Year1Month28On the 2nd, the Council adopted the proposal.So far, air pollution control has officially become one of the first batch of pilot studies of the Committee.How to push forward the landing of the pilot study on air pollution control as soon as possible has been put on the agenda.

As the lead pilot country, the United States is the most active in starting the pilot research on air pollution control as soon as possible.Only a week after the North Atlantic Council approved the establishment of the Modern Social Challenges Committee, Moynihan wrote to Robert, director of the US Budget Office.·Mayo (Robert P.Mayo), it is hoped that it will designate a special project specialist who will be responsible for the U.S. AsPilot countriesTo participate in the funding of the Committee’s air pollution control and other pilot studies.At the same time, in order to ensure the ultimate success of President Nixon’s proposal, the departments on which the pilot study is mainly based are required to give necessary support.U.S. Ambassador to NATO Robert·Ellsworth (Robert Ellsworth) It is recommended that the pilot study be initiated and a work plan be drawn up as soon as possible.In his view, this can not only make full use of the enthusiasm of Member States during the first meeting of the Committee, but also the implementation of the pilot study can strongly prove the significance of the Committee’s activities.In addition to Turkey, the Federal Republic of Germany also agreed to serve as a joint pilot country.

Later, with the help of case studies of member cities, the development of air pollution assessment methods and the proposal of worldwide air quality standards are regarded as the first step for the Modern Social Challenge Committee to promote air pollution control.Turkey, as a joint pilot country, proposed that1970Year3Month9—12On the 2nd, an expert meeting on air pollution control was held in Ankara, and plans are being made to organize the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance, the Ministry of Agrometeorological Research, municipal authorities, etc.6More than 30 representatives from the department attended the meeting.As a pilot country, the United States also attaches great importance to the preparation of this conference.The United States Department of State suggested that, The working procedures of the meeting should be more flexible and reasonable. In addition to coming from pilot countries and joint pilot countries for air pollution control, delegates can also invite interested countries to participate in the meeting as observer countries. If they cannot participate, they should ensure that they know the progress made in the pilot study. At the same time, allies are very welcome to actively participate in the pilot study for air pollution control.

Under the active mobilization and lobbying of Turkey and the United States, after nearly two months of preparation, the air pollution control expert meeting was held in Turkey as scheduled.The Ministry held a meeting with experts from the United States, France, Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Turkey and other countries.Experts from various countries have held heated discussions on air pollution and its control.3Month10On the 2nd, experts from participating countries issued a statement:The level of air pollution in Ankara has reached a level that requires high attention and has seriously affected the city’s economic development, requiring immediate measures.The representatives of the United States, Turkey and the Federal Republic of Germany even believed that substantive actions were needed to establish worldwide air quality standards, which should becomeBasic NeedsIn view of the problems found in the discussion,3Month11On the 2nd, the Expert Group put forward a proposal for action, recommending that the Modern Social Challenges Committee launch a long-term12In a month-long study, the study plans to use meteorological data to map Ankara’s pollution situation and improve the existing air collection network.Moreover, the United States, as a pilot country, will also select four experts each year to provide20US $10,000 to support the research work.

In addition to Ankara, Turkey, a joint pilot country, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, another joint pilot country, and St. Louis, a pilot country in the United States, are also case cities for air quality assessment studies.The three are the initial focus of evaluation research.Since then, as NATO allies have increased their interest in pilot research on air pollution control, Oslo in Norway, Rotterdam and Limburg in the Netherlands, Milan and Turin in Italy have5Three cities were also included in the evaluation study.At the same time, the choice of cities also takes into account factors such as city type, air pollution degree and pollution source. For example, Rotterdam’s air quality assessment study lasted for three years, mainly assessing the impact of large industrial cities and port cities on air quality, while Milan focused on the assessment and control of sulfur dioxide in industrial residential areas.Through the air quality assessment research of eight cities, including the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system, the determination of pollution sources and their locations through emissions, the modeling according to the statistical relationship between emissions and air quality, and the prediction of air quality, a database was finally formed.Through this database, air pollution control plans can be formulated accordingly.

At the same time, the pilot study also set up three expert groups to actively encourage and promote member countries to establish feasible air quality management programs.One is the Expert Group on Air Quality Standards, which is composed of experts from the pilot countries of the United States, the joint pilot countries of the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey, and observer countries such as Italy and France.1972—1973In # the group held meetings in Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, Bilthofen, Netherlands and Istanbul, Turkey, attracting representatives from eight NATO member states and Israel.At the same time, the Expert Group recognized that in order for NATO allies’ national air quality projects to be promoted in a timely and unified manner, internationally recognized standard documents must be promulgated.1971Since, based on the relevant air quality standards issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Expert Group has successively issued air quality standard documents for air pollutants such as sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, oxidants, etc.Among them, the standards on sulfur oxides, particulate matter and carbon monoxide are used as important references by the World Health Organization to formulate air quality guidelines and set air quality targets.Not only that, the World Health Organization has also set up a project to release more follow-up information after checking and reviewing several air pollutants released by NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee.The second is the Technical Control Expert Group, which is mainly responsible for the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, France, Italy, Turkey and the United States. Its responsibility is to carry out urban air quality assessment and issue air pollutant standard documents to provide necessary information and framework for the development of air pollution control technologies.Aiming at air pollutants such as sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, The Technical Control Expert Group collects the latest technologies and information to control the emission of various pollutants and releases the control technologies and methods of five pollutants from the main fixed emission sources, providing basic reference for NATO allies to formulate air pollution control plans and reduce the emission of fixed sources.The third is the Air Quality Model Expert Group, whose responsibility is to provide expert opinions on the design and application of the model for the pilot study.1970—1974In, it was held successively in Frankfurt, Federal Germany, Paris, France, Upper Useur, Federal Germany and Roskilde, Denmark.5Meeting of experts.Thanks to the efforts of the expert group, coupled with the careful setting of the theme of the meeting and the increasingly pragmatic format of the meeting such as workshops, the quality model expert meeting has aroused widespread interest in the international community including NATO allies.From1970Only in14People attended the Frankfurt Conference, to1974At the Roskilde Conference in Denmark, the number of participants has increased to67Total number of NATO allies and non-allies14He also sent invitations to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Japan.The expert meeting not only enables experts and representatives in the field of air quality modeling to exchange new technologies and ideas, but also acts as model designers and models.UsersThe platform for communication and communication has become an active international forum in the field of air quality models.In view of the effectiveness of the air quality modelling meeting,1974Year5In January, at the plenary meeting of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee, representatives of NATO allies agreed that the activities of the Air Quality Model Expert Group should continue.As a joint pilot country, the Federal Republic of Germany has committed itself to a follow-up project——Air quality modeling and assessment to continue to promote cooperation in air quality modeling.As the United States hopes, it is hoped that the actions of the Modern Society Challenge Committee will enable NATO countries to reach an agreement on air quality standards and eventually enable major NATO cities to implement these quality standards.ModelThe activities of the three expert groups have effectively promoted cooperation among NATO allies in the construction of air quality standards, the development of air pollution control technologies and the development of air quality models, providing institutional support for air pollution control in various countries.

Three, Expansion of Cooperation between Low Pollution Power System Development Project and NATO Allies

In additionWith the control of fixed emission sources, automobile exhaust emissions have also received the attention of the Committee.1970In, motor vehicles accounted for more than half of the total pollutant emissions in the United States.Major European cities are showing similar trends and are facing fuel shortages.Therefore, it has become the consensus of NATO countries to develop low-pollution vehicles, improve fuel economy and greatly reduce pollutant emissions from vehicles.Relying on the pilot study of air pollution control,1970Year11In January, the U.S. Government proposed to include the low pollution power system development project in the ongoing pilot study of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee.The Dutch government responded first.In the Netherlands, car ownership is very high, with an average of every4People have it1Air pollution caused by cars and road transportation is increasingly causing public concern.Therefore, the Dutch government actively encourages research in this field to implement more effective air pollution control measures.
It is under the active promotion of the Dutch government that,1971Year2Month23—25On the 2nd, a seminar on the development of low pollution power systems was held in Eindhoven, Netherlands.The United state, Britain, France, Italy and that Federal republic of Germany (FRG) will hold the conference, which is sponsored by the Dutch government and Philips12Representatives from 20 countries attended the meeting, and observers from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the European Community also attended.At that meet,12Representatives of China respectively introduced their respective national plans and policies on the issue of automobile pollution.Among them, as the pilot country of the air pollution control pilot study and the initiator of the low pollution power system development project, The U.S. Government sent experts from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Standards Bureau to attend and gave a more comprehensive introduction to the country’s federal motor vehicle air pollution control program and the federal motor vehicle carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emission standards.At the same time, the U.S. Representative also put forward a memorandum of understanding at the meeting to promote the cooperation of NATO allies on the project, hoping that all countries can cooperate to promote the air pollution control of motor vehicles. The initiative was supported by most NATO allies.1972Year11Month14Japan, Britain, France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and the United States signed the memorandum of understanding at the plenary meeting of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee. Countries agreed to cooperate in the development of low-pollution power systems within the framework of this multilateral agreement.
In order to make the best use of the existing mechanisms, the signatories also agreed to hold thematic seminars every year to maintain communication on the latest research and progress in their countries.Sweden and Japan are very interested in this and have indicated that they will also participate.1973Year10In May, a symposium on the Low Pollution Power System Development Project was held in Michigan under the organization of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.As that representative of the United state environmental protection agency emphasized at the open session of the conference, The international community is facing many problems in controlling automobile emissions. At the same time, it is proposed that, considering that the U.S. Government has already taken the lead in controlling the construction of automobile exhaust emission standards, NATO countries must meet the U.S. Emission standards for automobiles exported to the United States.The U.S. Proposal received positive responses from most countries. Among them, the representative of Italy said in reporting on the progress of his country’s automobile emission control that through internal improvement, his country’s automobile industry has reached the U.S. Emission standards and plans to optimize the equipment for controlling external emissions.The representative of the Federal Republic of Germany also stated that his Government, through short-term work such as spark ignition and diesel engine improvement, as well as long-term projects related to the development of gas turbines, Stirling engines and Rankine engines, expected to1980In, its automobile emission level can be controlled at1969One tenth of the annual emission level, that is, the United States1976Strict emission levels for.At the same time, on the basis of the introduction of their own progress by representatives of various countries, this seminar will give technical demonstrations on gas turbines, Rankine power systems and Stirling cycle engines in different topics.
If we say1973Interest in the # symposium focused primarily on the development of new power systems,1974The second symposium in # fully discussed conventional automobile engines and measures to reduce emissions.It is a year11In May, the Second Symposium on Low Pollution Power System Development Project was held in Dusseldorf, Federal Germany.This symposium focuses on international exhaust emission legislation, fuel economy of conventional internal combustion engines, advanced automotive power systems, alternative fuels for automobiles, evaluation standards for automotive power systems, etc.7The theme was launched, with group meetings as the main part and exhibitions as the auxiliary part, to discuss and show the current situation of low pollution system development in various countries and the latest technological development of automobile power systems.
Judging from its discussion, all countries attach great importance to the emission reduction of automobile exhaust.Major automobile companies and engine companies such as the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom are all conducting improvement tests on diesel engines. Through engine modification, fuel economy is improved, and exhaust emissions are finally reduced through exhaust treatment.Among them, at the request of the U.S. Congress, the feasibility report on improving the fuel economy of automobiles jointly carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation shows that it is feasible to significantly improve the fuel economy of automobiles on the premise of following clean air emission standards.And the fuel economy can be improved at the highest without increasing the price of the car.20%Improve30%May increase the price of cars.200US Dollar, Increase40%It increases400U.S. Dollars, but the increased cost of cars can soon be offset by fuel savings.Volkswagen, Porsche and Mercedes in the Federal Republic of GermanyThe improved design of engines by Mercedes-Benz and other automobile companies can effectively reduce the emissions of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide while not affecting the driving performance, showing high economy.Honda Motor Company of Japan1972Launched inCVCCThe engine adopts the separation combustion mode of the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber to further improve the fuel efficiency and reduce emissions, and the test shows that it conforms to the United States.1975Annual emission standards.In addition,1973The Middle East War of # and the subsequent oil crisis prompted countries to improve engines and carry out research projects to find alternative fuels.
Panel discussions on national emission legislation, Governments have noticed that although some European countries have successively introduced U.S. Automobile emission reduction legislation and federal motor vehicle emission standards, national laws and regulations are only applicable to certain countries or regions and cannot solve the problems brought about by automobile trade and cross-border driving travel. Therefore, how to carry out in-depth international cooperation has attracted increasing attention.Among them, representatives of the U.S. Government actively exported their own emission standards, urging all countries to enact legislation and strictly abide by the timeline of U.S. Standards to implement them.Rogge, head of the U.S. Delegation and assistant director of air and waste management at the Environmental Protection Agency,·Strello (Roger Strelow) said that the U.S. Congress has written into law a timetable for implementing emission standards, and the U.S. Public hopes to take prompt action in this area and calls for joint action by all countries.In response, the representative of the Federal Republic of Germany said that his Government attached great importance to environmental policies, as early as1969Following the example of the United States, cars were required to be equipped with crankcase recycling devices to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and to1971Year8In January,9In January, the Anti-Lead Law and the Federal Emission Law were promulgated one after another to strengthen the control of automobile exhaust pollutants from the legislative level.The head of the Canadian delegation, Gulong (A.C.Gullon) also said that he highly recognized the work of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in emission control, but Canadian cars are certified by manufacturers themselves, which is different from the U.S. Supervisory certification, and consumers are unwilling to control emissions. “Pay the billTherefore, manufacturers lack the power to develop clean cars.In spite of this, the Canadian Government has strengthened its management and made it possible to1973Proclaimed in1975The annual emission standard is essentially the same as that of the United States.
However, unlike the positive attitude of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada, the head of the British delegation, George from the Ministry of Environment,·Donald (George Donald), it is argued that an overall assessment should not be made only from an environmental point of view, but rather from an environmental point of view.According to the requirements of the U.S. Control Standard Timeline, its control cost may exceed the environmental dividend that Britain can obtain. Therefore, Britain adopted the European Community Directive and expressed its reluctance to accept stricter air pollution control measures for the time being.Sweden’s emission requirements are also between strict U.S. Standards and relatively loose European Community requirements, but it said that its cars and products exported to the United States will meet U.S. Standards.
Although the meeting failed to solve the problems inherent in many international standards, it is undoubtedly an effective means to exchange ideas and technologies on a global scale through the symposium on low pollution power system development projects.Just like NATO Assistant Secretary General for Scientific Affairs Nimet·Nizdas (Nimet Ozdas) and the Government representatives of the Federal Republic of Germany’s Ministry of Research and Technology and the Ministry of the Interior, The main challenges facing the world today are attributed to the three basic elements of the environment, However, the theme of this symposium is interrelated with the three elements, which is extremely interlaced and complicated. The conference hopes to lead the future with environmentally friendly automobiles by bringing together experts from all over the world, thus becoming an important milestone in solving the automobile problem and future automobile development.
The study found that as of1974At the end of the year, NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee announced19Relevant technical reports, such as air pollution models, air quality assessment, air quality standards, control technologies for various pollutants, development of low-pollution power systems and production of clean automobile engines.Based on its air quality standards and air pollution control technologies, NATO member governments have successively formulated their own air pollution control policies and air quality standards, and promulgated national air pollution control laws.The North Atlantic Council also passed a resolution requiring member countries to make every effort to use the developed systematic method to establish their own air quality management plans.Not only that, many countries have also adopted the technical reports of the Modern Social Challenges Committee when drafting legislation to control air pollution, and even the World Health Organization has used these research results in its Global Community Air Pollution Project.

4. International Cooperation and Attempts to Beyond Cold War Barriers

Different from the establishment of NATO’s Scientific Committee in the early Cold War, the establishment of the Modern Social Challenge Committee stems more from the needs of NATO allies themselves.In the view of the United States, it is concerned about the ability of the allies to cope with these challenges and how to strengthen the unity of the Atlantic society. Not only that, the United States also hopes that NATO’s actions in the environmental field can arouse the interest of the Soviet Union, and then help Europe’s political detente through negotiations on practical issues such as environmental policies and technologies.There is no denying the fact that the actions of the Modern Society Challenge Committee will help expand new areas in which NATO can negotiate, especially allowing it to set foot in social and technical issues other than military defense and political consultation, and will also provide new possibilities for cooperation between NATO allies and non-allies, especially with Eastern European countries.Or because of this, some researchers even pointed out that the establishment of the Modern Society Challenge CommitteeIt should be seen primarily as an instrument of moderation
In fact, not only the United States but also NATO allies expect the Modern Social Challenge Committee to become a catalyst for easing East-West relations.Sharp weaponModerate functionalismdétente functionalism) The theory holds that negotiations on technical issues are relatively easy and can pave the way for subsequent political negotiations.In this regard, the Committee on the Challenges of Modern SocietyHave nothing to do with politicsThe image of the, seems to provide for the discussion between the East and the WestA promising opening statementa promising opening)。
The Federal Republic of Germany is at the forefront of the confrontation with the Soviet Union. Easing relations with the Soviet Union is conducive to the realization of peace and stability in Europe, especially with East Germany.Ralph, then State Secretary of the Parliament of the Federal German Foreign Ministry,·Darren Dorf Ralf Dahrendorf) When attending the first plenary meeting of the Modern Social Challenges Committee, he said bluntly:The issues we are discussing here have every chance of becoming the starting point of the East-West negotiation agenda, leading to rapid agreement and measures.Improving the quality of life of our people’——‘Our peopleIncluding either side of the European dividing line.He further note that,It was clear that, while the Commission did not associate its actions with their counterparts in non-allied countries or Warsaw Pact countries for the sake of decision-making, the choice of themes would help to lead the Commission itself to the general line of political action set by the Council.In other words, the chosen theme should better serve the improvement of East-West relations.In his view, modern social and environmental issues can become a fruitful theme for East-West cooperation.A European Environment ConferenceIts significance goes far beyond that of the European Security Conference.German Interior Minister HansDietrich·Genscher (HansDietrich Genscher) It is also believed that environmental cooperation can provide the possibility for East-West cooperation, which is extremely difficult in the fields of defense and political orientation.The more problems NATO can solve other than security problems, the more effective it will be.The attitude of the Federal Republic of Germany is undoubtedly conducive to the advancement of the work of the United States and the Committee.Moynihan to US Deputy Secretary of State Eliot·Richardson (Elliot L.Richardson), referring to Darren Darren’s deep interest in the possibility of environmental cooperation between East and West, he made no secret of his appreciation of Darren Darren Darren.
Although there are many doubts about this, such as Dutch Foreign Ministry official William·Elzinga (Willem Elzinga) argues that the Modern Society Challenges Committee will only shiftThe Real Problem of NATOThat is, to divert attention from the security field, but also to compete with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other international organizations.Opponents have criticized the OECD as a more appropriate forum for consultation, while the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society will take environmental issues into account.MilitarizationHowever, the United States, Canada, Turkey, the Federal Republic of Germany, Britain and others are more inclined to the view of East-West cooperation. Although they also admit that the main goal of the Modern Society Challenge Committee is to learn how to solve these problems within NATO. Only when the environmental protection work within NATO is effective will there be an opportunity to apply these principles to the solution of environmental problems in East and West.Therefore, the use of the Modern Social Challenges Committee to promote East-West cooperation, provided that the pilot study can achieve results as quickly as possible, only in this way can there be a chance to make it becomeAn instrument of moderation
Indeed, with the smooth progress of the pilot study on air pollution control, the Modern Social Challenges Committee is also looking forward to applying these results to East-West cooperation in this field.As a pilot country, the United StatesSpokesperson”——The Environmental Protection Department attaches great importance to promoting international cooperation in the field of environmental protection. Fitzhugh, Deputy Director of International Activities of the Environmental Protection Department,·Green (Fitzhugh Green) has indicated that,We have taken a big step in international activities in a very short time.We send representatives abroad and ensure that laboratories, regional centers and headquarters are staffed to receive visiting foreign visitors.1970—1971In # the United States began informal contacts with the Soviet Union through the United Nations Association of America,1971In the autumn of 2005, the air pollution control team of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency visited the Soviet Union and held discussions with Soviet experts. Air pollution modeling, development of air pollution control technologies, impact of air pollution on human health, and air pollution control measures attracted both sides’ interest.Some of the opinions and suggestions reached by the two sides could have become1972 An important part of the UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in # but unfortunately, the results of these talks were not adopted by the UN because the Soviet Union finally refused to attend.However, these contacts laid the foundation for the subsequent formal negotiations and cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union. 
Later, President Nixon and Special Assistant for National Security Henry·Kissinger actively promoted the relaxation of relations with the Soviet Union. President Nixon’s successful visit to the Soviet Union opened a new chapter of US-Soviet cooperation in the era of Cold War relaxation to some extent.1972Year5Month22On the 2nd, President Nixon met with Soviet leader Brezhnev and the two sides signed an agreement to strengthen trade and two landmark arms control treaties, namely, the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.However,5Month23Japan, President Nixon and Nikolai, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union·Podgorne (Nikolai Podgorny) A special agreement was also signed jointly——U.S.-Soviet Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement.On this basis, relying onJoint Committee on Environmental ProtectionJoint Committee on Environmental Protection), the two countries have strengthened information exchange in the field of environmental protection and are expected to identify research areas or cooperative activities that will benefit both sides. Air pollution control has received attention as an important part of bilateral environmental protection agreements.6Month8Japan, Soviet Deputy Minister of Hydrometeorological Services Yuri·Israel (Yuriy Izrael) led a delegation to the US Environmental Protection Agency for a two-week visit.During this visit to the United States, the Soviet delegation, accompanied by representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State Department, also visited the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control Zone to learn about the control projects of fixed pollution sources in the air pollution control zone.The US Environmental Protection Agency’s air pollution team also paid a return visit to the Soviet Union. At the same time, in order to enhance the exchange of information and technology, the US has also provided a series of publications, papers and documents related to environmental protection to its Soviet counterparts.United States International Affairs Office only1972Year7Month7One copy of the dayList of Publications to Soviet Research GroupsIt shows:The U.S. Department of Education, Health and Welfare and the Environmental Protection Agency have successively provided publications on air pollution control to the Soviet Union, including53Items, Papers55Documents on U.S. Air quality data, etc.21Share.This shows the closeness or at least the strength of the cooperation intention between the two countries in air pollution control.
With the advancement of US-Soviet cooperation, especially the bilateral agreement on environmental cooperation, the mentality of European allies has undergone subtle changes.They are worried that the United StatesDiscardEurope is also worried that the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union will impose their standards on their European allies when solving environmental problems.To this end, the British Environment Department requested the Foreign Office to provide a copy of the US-Soviet agreement.1972Year7In May, according to a response from the United States to the British Embassy in Washington, the British Embassy responded to its Foreign Office,There is no basis for fears that the United States and the Soviet Union will join hands to solve environmental problems and sacrifice the interests of other countries.At the same time, the British Embassy suggested that the United States inform Europe of the US-Soviet cooperation process through bilateral or NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee to ease the worries of European countries.Obviously, the United States adopted the suggestion of the British Embassy and9In early January, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union were informed that they would hold talks on the implementation of the US-Soviet Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement.9Month15Russell, chairman of the U.S.-Soviet Joint Commission on Environmental Protection, arrived in Moscow on Sunday for talks·Train (Russell Train) He also briefed the North Atlantic Council on the “US-Soviet Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement” and its significance, stressing that the United States is far ahead of the Soviet Union in the field of environmental protection.The Soviet Union focuses on economic development rather than ecological protection, so it faces severe environmental problems and is not sure how to solve this problem.However, in addition, the Soviet Union is at a leading level in specific fields such as Arctic ecology and earthquake prevention, which can help the pilot projects of NATO’s Modern Social Challenge Committee. Therefore, the bilateral cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union does not benefit unilaterally from the Soviet Union.Permanent Representative of Belgium·Steke (André de Staercke) expressed Belgium’s environment towards the US and Soviet superpowers.ReconciliationThe worries of.In response, Train said that the United States has bilateral agreements with Mexico, Japan, Canada and other countries, and the new bilateral agreements between the United States and the Soviet Union will not affect the relationship between the United States and its European allies.
Taking NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee as a platform, the U.S. Actions and responses seem to have eased the concerns of allies.1972Year11In January, at the plenary meeting of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee, Train pointed out that a new agreement on US-Soviet cooperation would be launched.14A joint project.Train is1973At the plenary meeting in Ottawa in the spring of 2002, the progress of environmental cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union was once again introduced, saying that the bilateral agreement signed by the United States and the Soviet Union had reached30A.The researchers noted that,1972—1976In, the United States and the Soviet Union totaled11A series of drafts and agreements have been signed in the field of environmental protection. The United States and the Soviet Union have signed environmental protection agreements, and each draft and agreement has project leaders or committee chairmen from the United States and the Soviet Union.Among them, the air pollution project is the first in a series of agreements. Relevant experts and working groups from the United States and the Soviet Union have exchanged visits many times on the air pollution issue.In the meantime, the two sides have determined specific cooperation projects such as air pollution from fixed pollution sources, air pollution caused by transportation and sulfide pollution through negotiation. At the same time, they have signed cooperation agreements on these projects, carried out cooperative research, and strengthened information sharing and technical exchanges.
Although the landing and implementation of these agreements are not easy, the US-Soviet environmental protection cooperation promoted by NATO’s Modern Social Challenge Committee has expanded the international community’s environmental protection awareness to a certain extent and reduced the number of reasons forGlobal Southglobal south) and the Soviet Union and other socialist countries boycotted the Stockholm Environment Conference, and the environmental protection cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union was even regarded as20The most successful of several agreements signed between the two countries in the 1970s and 1980s.In the view of researchers, this success is not only reflected in the fact that it not only expands the field of work and the number of participants, but also produces beneficial results.


The establishment of NATO’s Modern Social Challenges Committee and its promotion of international environmental protection cooperation around air pollution control, Through actively holding expert meetings on air pollution control or promoting the convening of international environmental protection meetings, and promoting cooperation with the Soviet Union in the field of environmental protection, information dissemination and experience exchange within NATO allies and even with the Soviet Union in the field of air pollution control have been strengthened and fruitful results have been achieved.Under the active leadership and promotion of the pilot countries of the United States and the joint pilot countries of Turkey and the Federal Republic of Germany, Focusing on the four elements of air pollution assessment methods, air quality standards, air pollution control technologies and air quality models, NATO allies and non-NATO allies have carried out systematic cooperation in a targeted and planned way around the pilot study of air pollution control.

For this reason, the Modern Social Challenges Committee has subsequently carried out air pollution assessment methods and models (1975—1979), air pollution control strategy and impact modeling (1979—1985), indoor air quality (1988—1994), the spread and diffusion of air pollutants in coastal urban areas (1991—1997) to reduce air pollution from marine engines (1993—1998), air pollution from regional or cross-border traffic (1998—2004) and other pilot studies have played a positive role in promoting trans-Atlantic environmental protection cooperation and promoting international social science to reasonably prevent and control air pollution.Therefore, air pollution control, road traffic safety and disaster relief have become the three most successful pilot studies of the Committee.

At the same time, NATO, as a powerful military and political organization during the Cold War, its main responsibility is to defend against military challenges and threats from the Soviet bloc and actively promote political negotiations among allies.However, the arrival of the Cold War detente era has led to more and more resistance to NATO in Europe and weakened its international influence.In order to improve NATO’s international image and prevent NATO from declining, the United States, as the leader of the Western world, has actively promoted NATO’s social transformation and enhanced its allies’ ability to meet the challenge. The pilot study on air pollution control led by the United States has strengthened the unity of trans-Atlantic society to a certain extent.Admittedly, NATO’s attention to environmental issues can also turn allies to new diplomatic fields, and may even allow them to transcend ideological barriers and start new East-West relations.The beneficial attempts made by the United States and the Soviet Union on environmental issues eased the Cold War confrontation.However, the bilateral cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union has not fully realized the environmental protection cooperation between the East and the West, the South and the North, and the global environmental protection movement still has a long way to go.

The author of this articleZhang Yongan, Professor of History Department of Shanghai University; Qiao Jinghua is a PhD candidate in the Department of History of Shanghai University.
The original text contains World History, No.2, 2020. Due to the limitation of WeChat platform, comments are omitted. For reference or quotation, please read the original text.

Public Number: World History Editorial Department

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