Selected Works | Henry VIII and Tudor Dynasty

2020-07-02 | By Historian | Filed in: World.

Henry VIII and Tudor Dynasty

Optimized Title: Henry VIII and Tudor Dynasty: Multi-sided Tyrant and His Legendary Empire

Translator: Young-Wang Steinway Produces
Category: History European History
ISBN:978-7-5057-4880-4
Pricing: 88.00 yuan
Print: 14
File: 32
Finished product size: 147*210
Listing Date: June 2020

 
Dangdang Classification: History > Popular Reading Materials of History > Modern World History
Jingdong Classification: History/World History

Key words:
Key words: Henry VIII, Henry VII, Elizabeth I, Bloody Mary Cromwell, Thomas Moorwalcy, Catherine Anne Bo Seymour of Aragon, Edward I
Key Words of Discipline: History, European History, Wars of the Roses, Tudor Dynasty, York Family, Lancaster Family
Common Key Words: The Rise and Decline of the British Empire Plantagenet Dynasty, the British Empire and World War I Shakespeare’s Drama World Henry VIII Empire Crown Wolf Hall Temple Spring and Autumn Endless World Eternal Flame First Crusade Monster Examination of Rogue Power Game Sherlock Holmes Detective Collection
 

The authoritative research results of Tudor historians reveal the secret of blood and fire to cover up the mental process of the next generation of tyrants. Discover the unknown secrets of the British Empire. Marriage and Throne; Conservatism and reform; Literary Youth and Multi-sided Tyrant, Restoring a Real Henry VIII
 
Edit Recommendation
[Challenge Old Assumptions and Restore History]
The author of this book challenges the old assumptions and conducts pioneering research. The famous historical events of Henry VIII and Tudor Dynasty, numerous and complicated political struggles, and the economy and life of the Dynasty are all rich and three-dimensional in the book.
[Looking at Human Nature and Growth to See the Causes of “Tyrant”]
Henry VIII is most handed down by word of mouth by the population because of his marital entanglements with his six wives. However, in many historical materials, the author has paid close attention to his personality, beliefs and contradictory behaviors from his growth, and has made a detailed restoration and a brand-new interpretation of Henry VIII, a notorious emperor in history.
[The author is rich in professional authoritative information and pictures]
The author of this book, John Matushak, is an expert in Tudor history. He has published many books on Tudor in England and is an authoritative researcher in this field. The book contains many exquisite illustrations and portraits, which are precious historical materials.
 
 
Content Introduction
In 1485, Count Henry Tudor took the throne and established the Tudor Dynasty. This dynasty, which ruled the Kingdom of England for 118 years, has experienced five generations of monarchs and is a golden period in the history of British autocratic monarchy. As the second monarch of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VIII himself was as legendary as the Dynasty. His personality, beliefs, contradictory behaviors and even his six marriages are all closely related to the future direction of Tudor Dynasty.
In Henry VIII and Tudor, Tudor historian John Matusiak challenged the old assumptions and made a brand-new interpretation and pioneering research on Henry VIII and Tudor under his rule. He and his dynasty are rich and three-dimensional in the book.
 
Author’s Brief Introduction
John Matusiak, a Tudor historian in England. He is a resident contributor to History Review and History Today. He also wrote books such as Henry V and Wolsey.
 
Directory
 
1 Childlike Emperor 001
2 Promoted Prince 033
The Golden Age of Loyalty 063
4 Hand-Hand 095
5 The Palace of Phantom
123 
6 Guardians 153
7 Power and Poverty 183
8 Passion Makes 213
The Endless Noise under the Deadlock 241
10 supremacy 269
The lion knows his power 297
12 Climbing the dragon and attaching the phoenix will eventually lead to retribution 327
13 Insistence 355
End 387
Acknowledgement 391
References and bibliographic information 393
  
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Author’s Notes
Although the dissent of the authors is often understood, most of the works handed down to later generations will become the composition of consensus, of which the works about the past are especially important. The history of Henry VIII’s rule has naturally attracted many outstanding scholars and talented popular biographers, many of whom have left their own unique marks on this intricate subject. Due to their outstanding efforts, the factual materials on this topic seem to have been exhausted at present, and there are no new achievements in what to be discovered.
However, if someone can re-sort out the backbone and side branches of the historical facts during Henry’s rule, we can still get some brand-new integrated views, especially in some individual aspects that people care about. This is perhaps the eternal charm of historical writing. At the same time, this is also the gist of the book.
 
A childlike emperor
 
You have defeated many opponents. You have many territories. You have conquered
Many kingdoms; The whole East is under your rule. Even so, you
Or do you neglect to rule, or do you have no ability to rule, even your own mind and body
I have never obeyed you in the subtleties.
Aristotle said to Alexander the Great,
John Skelton, the mentor of Henry VIII
Quote to the future emperor
 
Compared with his brother Arthur, the birth of Henry VIII was obviously much lower-key.
Prince Arthur of Wales was born on September 20, 1486. He came to the world in a hurry four weeks before the expected date of delivery. Upon birth, he immediately won the reputation of “Rose of England”, which also became a living manifestation of the lasting alliance between York and Lancaster, two rival families. Therefore, his birthplace was carefully chosen to echo his name, so as to arouse the sense of classicality and confirm the mysterious legitimacy of his lofty position. As the legendary ancient capital of the country, the cathedral in Winchester still retains the former round table and has just been painted with the Tudor emblem. Riders galloped through the countryside at the end of summer, spreading this “pleasant good news” to all corners of the country, with church bells ringing and cheerful hymns echoing in them. The streets were crowded with people and huge bonfires were burning, warmly expressing “the joy of every real English”. In the court, Italian poets PietroCarmeliano and GiovanniGigli chanted extremely joyful Latin verses to celebrate the birth of the little prince who could heal the wounds of the country. (Figure 1)
 
However, even if some people rejoiced when Henry VIII came to earth about five years later, on June 28, 1491, no record has been handed down. He was baptized in Franciscans Church, where the silver baptism basin of Canterbury Cathedral was specially transported.
The whole baptism ceremony was carefully arranged, hoping to purify the evil soul. Henry VIII came to the ceremony in a noble way, preceded by jubilant horns and flutes, as well as gold plates and silver lamps presented by his godfather. However, although the king and queen think their second son is a good supplement to the royal family, they prefer him to become a patron rather than a savior, providing strong support and protection for his brother to cope with the unpredictable medical development during the Renaissance. Under such circumstances, just as the poets were completely indifferent to this, the people basically ignored this moment. In the silence, only the royal historian BernardAndr é recorded the incident in a few entries in his work VitaHenriciVII, and casually mentioned the birth of his sister Margaret in the same paragraph. (Figure 2)
 
The same carelessness is also reflected in Henry’s choice of birthplace. His birthplace was neither Winchester nor Westminster (where his sister Margaret was born). The vibrant baby was finally arranged to be born in a palace called Prasencher. The palace is located in Greenwich today, which was famous for its fresh air and pleasant riverside scenery at that time, and was far from the plague-ravaged capital. However, the historical significance of the place is really not worth mentioning. But it was here that Prince Henry was smeared with oil, sprinkled with rose water, wrapped in blue velvet cloth with gold rim, and put into the cradle of the royal family for the first time. Like all newborns, he is still an innocent life at this time, waiting for the environment to change it.
(Figure 3)
About six years ago, his father received the cheers of the people as Henry VII for the first time in London. Although he was welcomed at the magnificent celebrations in Shordic, he was still a mysterious king of unknown origin at that time, and his legitimacy only came from the despair of the British people at that time who were tired of war. His great-grandfather was notorious as a Welsh conspirator and wanted for murder. While his grandfather served as a family minister for Henry V’s widow for many years, he seduced her to seize wealth and status. In fact, although the new king’s mother is Margaret Beaufort, the great-granddaughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Lancaster, she is only an illegitimate daughter. Although parliament has given her and her children legal status, it has also explicitly prohibited them from ascending to the throne. In any case, even if Henry VII can obtain the throne through his mother’s blood, it should be his mother, not himself, who ascended the throne first. However, despite such unfortunate lineage, the miraculous winner of the Bosworth Battle finally hoisted his flag and sounded the horn at St. Paul’s Church, demonstrating his ruling power over this land accustomed to turmoil and his will to enter it.
Some people once said, “France’s depravity is debauchery, Britain’s depravity is treachery”. When the first Tudor king ascended the throne, all impartial observers would agree with the latter half of the sentence. Although for 90% of the civilians, The long and intermittent dispute we call the “Wars of the Roses” today is nothing more than a “King’s Game”. However, a parliamentary petition at that time lamented that during the turmoil, “heinous crimes such as murder, robbery, extortion, malicious oppression and various other crimes of improper governance, forced entry and infringement of private rights occurred in many parts of the country, and these crimes have not been punished until today”. In fact, the crimes of illegally entering private territory, kidnapping female heirs and robbing at will were the fashionable pastimes that many British gentlemen who were regarded as expensive and decent today were keen on at that time. SirThomasMalory, for example, was jailed in 1485 for stealing sheep, blasphemy, extortion, rape and attempted murder, although he wrote a famous sentence in Morted ‘Arthur, “We did not go to hell for sin, but for practicing and pursuing virtue beyond redemption”.
However, less than 10 years after Henry VII’s ruthless and efficient exercise of the royal will, chroniclers no longer have to plead and pray for the return of good rule to the world. Venetian Ambassador Sanuto rightly realized that the king was “a man of extraordinary ability” and no what could prove this more than he restored the royal authority again. Indeed, he did not have what’s great ambitions, But as FrancisBacon said, “He pays attention to everything around him”, and even though his temperament of paying too much attention to details and being too suspicious of the people around him is sometimes obviously unpopular, he knows how to behave appropriately and how to refuse others to “get their hands on, grab their own power, or approach their own secrets”. At the same time, he can also choose and manage his servants well, so that they can keep “awe” of themselves in fear, and ensure that they dare not plot evil even if they are dissatisfied. By the time he died, although the state treasury was not full, at least for the time being he did not have to bear the hardship of being short of money.
If Henry VII won the crown through orderly realism and overcame many difficulties to tame a kingdom, then his discipline of his troublesome son showed the opposite result at a certain time. This son will squander his father’s hard-earned foundation and ignore many principles he once taught himself-this is obviously a complete irony.
In an era when court morality was generally weak, he was always loyal to his wife, but this was not an honor for the first Tudor king. Like her husband, Elizabeth of York suffered from the turmoil of the past. She is the eldest daughter of 008 Dehua IV, and when Henry VI briefly regained the throne, the 5-year-old had to flee with her mother ElizabethWoodville and live in a shelter in Westminster. Although six months later, she was high-spirited by herself.
Her father welcomed her back and rode out of the monastery gate, but when she was 18 years old, her father died suddenly and she had to return to the shelter of the church again. Then, she, her sister and the surviving brother (Edward is 12 years old and Richard is 9 years old) were ruled illegal children.
Their mother was charged with being a witch. This is not the end of Elizabeth’s troubles. Later, after her uncle was crowned Richard III, her two brothers died in the Tower of London and there were rumors that they had been murdered.
Today, people can see the portrait of Henry VIII’s mother in Westminster Abbey. Her portrait is also currently hanging in the British National Portrait Gallery. Both portraits show that she is a beautiful woman with good face, fair skin, blond hair, slender and elegant hands. (Figure 4) However, they did not reveal the woman’s inner world.
In fact, to all who know her, her piety is famous both at home and abroad, which is completely consistent with her loyalty and obedience to her husband. Even during the dangerous period when he first reigned in England, she stood by him, decorated his court with due diligence, and gave birth to seven children for him, only three of whom were adults. However, when she was described as “an extremely elegant and shrewd woman”, “very distinguished” and “very popular” and “full of compassion”, two letters from the Spanish ambassador showed less harmonious notes. One of them said that she was “controlled by the king’s mother” and “in urgent need of a little love”, while the other observed that the king was deeply influenced by his mother and further concluded that the queen “did not like this under normal circumstances”.
In fact, Elizabeth did abide by her motto of “humility and respect” and has always been a kind and modest figure, but that’s all. In addition, although she and her husband are in love with each other, the latter is always above her in her personal relationship. Like other women of noble birth in her generation, Elizabeth, as a wife, is completely in a state of passive obedience in the marriage relationship. At the same time, her duty as a mother is only to have children, not to raise them. She did not personally feed her second son or live beside him. Most importantly, through her death, she finally left the deepest impression on the future Henry VIII. It is conceivable that she completely resigned to her mother-in-law’s intrusion and soon gave her her youngest son to raise without objection. In fact, only a few weeks after baptism, baby Henry left his mother’s residence and went to ElthamPalace in Kent. There, he will grow up in the doting and solemn piety of his grandmother Margaret Beaufort and in isolation.
It is not surprising that “Noble Margaret” did not leave too many fond memories for her second grandson. She is one of the most eye-catching women in this century. After four marriages, she finally became a widow again in 1504 and immediately decided to take a public oath to keep her virginity. She also took part in the coup that brought her son the throne and was more politically experienced and capable of shaking their position than anyone in the latter’s court.
In 1498, according to the Spanish ambassador, she was one of the five or six most influential people in Britain. Perhaps to make up for the regret that she was not allowed to directly interfere in the government during her reign, Henry VII entrusted her with full responsibility for the internal affairs of the court. As a result, her infatuation and ambition left an indelible mark on her second grandson.
Countess 1 is actually a completely devout prayer and practitioner, which has brought the best and worst influence to the boy she raised at a sensitive age. What she is most willing to do is to read and translate devout works such as TheImitationofChrist. She will go to church at 5 o’clock every morning, one hour earlier than the usual time for people to get up. Although she suffers from rheumatism, she will still insist on bowing down on the ground for a long time. “For the Health of the Soul,” she was wearing a bristle shirt worn by ascetics next to her skin, with a simple robe outside rather than gorgeous palace costumes, which made her more like a nun. This is not the whole of her asceticism. She has always been a dieter and is meticulous about the fast period. During Lent, she can only eat one fish meal a day. At the same time, she also supported 12 poor people in her home in Woking, washed their feet, ate with them when they were ill, and watched them when they were dying, so that she could learn how to die peacefully when the eternal covenant she eagerly awaited came.
Although Henry did not settle down with his grandmother, he probably loved and hated her because her aggressive wit was breathless. It is not only lofty, but also devout and humble. At the same time, it is accompanied by the concern that slowly bites the hearts of the people, which is even more difficult to absorb.
After all, she has never forgotten how history changed in Bosworth Plain and how her cherished son nearly died in Richard III’s hands and became a mutilated and defiled body. It was her confessing priest JohnFisher who noticed her ability to “cry exceptionally” and at the same time he noticed her morbid pessimism. “In times of adversity, she will cry for the immediate misfortune,” he concluded, “in times of prosperity, she will worry about the potential crisis.” The rumble of the wheel of fate disturbed her, and now it was “Noble Margaret” ‘s turn to disturb her grandson’s childhood.
In fact, apart from the Holy Father and her own son, the third person in Margaret’s version of the Trinity seems to be Prince Henry. She probably saw some tenacious vitality and cunning survival instinct in him, which played an important role in her own early adversity survival process. In any case, the deep eyes on her narrow face must be burning with family ambition and religion, and these eyes are now fixed on her second grandson. After all, the Beaufort family has lingered around the throne for three generations, and now that the throne belongs to the family, she must do whatever it takes to ensure the succession of the throne. Therefore, while protecting Prince Henry’s personal safety, she is also committed to defending his position. By his 10th birthday, she chose him as her successor and implored the king to arrange: “Don’t leave my servants to anyone, except your beautiful and lovely son, only he is worthy to be their master.”
In addition, as this incident shows, she is also trying to instill in him a conscious awareness of her birth rights.
Although the gender and temperament of the two grandchildren are quite different, she still tries to make the two reach a consensus on at least one aspect: strong resentment towards the French. And this kind of feeling eventually runs through the child’s life. As we all know, the French king still owes Lady Marguerite a large sum of money, which is the ransom paid by her mother for the Duke of Orleans after the arrest of Agincourt 1. Despite Margaret’s repeated requests, the debt has not been repaid, and when she later gave the money to her son in the hope that he could recover the debt by force, her wishful thinking fell through. Although the latter’s reply was mild, what it expressed was nothing more than that it was not yet the time to fight such a powerful enemy. It is not hard to imagine the impact of this filial son’s response on the mother who is used to controlling. There is no doubt that her anger over this outstanding debt has been tormenting her, and this endless resentment will naturally be passed on to Prince Henry. This may be the reason why he naively tried to recover the land lost to the French in the Hundred Years’ War.
As the hostess of the imperial court, the old lady also created the miniature world of Tudor nurseries. The center of the world-especially in Henry’s first few months of life-was undoubtedly his wet nurse AnneLuke. Although it does not leave too many figures in historical materials, However, we are basically sure that the young woman’s physical and mental qualities should be able to meet the strict baby-raising standards specified by Sir SirThomasElyot for future generations in his book TheBokeNamedTheGovernment, such as the absolutely necessary “bloody” skin, which indicates that blood dominates the four body fluids. This means that Anne needs ruddy cheeks, thick reddish brown hair, plump figure and warm, extroverted and emotional character, because this is the type of woman most likely to produce milk “superior in sweetness and content composition”. At the same time, she is also required to “be an adult and fully developed, not less than 20 years old or more than 30 years old” and “have integrity, act prudently, and have reasonable expectations of remuneration” because “children will catch her bad habits due to sucking milk”. Therefore, she must be as good as jade, and if any disease infects the baby, she must bear the responsibility alone. Philosopher and physician Avicenna once declared that there is no doubt that “the first thing to treat a baby is to take good care of his wet nurse”. Therefore, she may be bled, cupped, “vomited and healthy” at any time, or suffer from “catharsis and detoxification”. Moreover, once the milk supply decreases, she will be provided with a special diet, including stewed cow breasts, dried cow tongues or earthworm powder.
Therefore, only when Henry ascended the throne and decided to give Anne Luke a pension of 20 pounds a year to praise her efforts did all this seem reasonable. However, it is obviously still a question whether even such a diligent and self-sacrificing wet nurse can make up for the natural and unconditional maternal love that the baby prince lost when he was born.
Neither Anne Luke nor the others who took care of him in the palace at that time were able to establish spontaneous contact with him in an informal way, which may make Henry always avoid communicating with others in the future. From birth until the age of 7, in this isolated nursery, the vast majority of people around him are expressionless papery figures who can only provide help and support, not interaction and correction. If such an early experience made him adapt to his role as a prince more calmly and could be on an equal footing with adults early on, then this experience also made him accustomed to ignoring the inner world of others, and this character trait was strengthened rapidly during his puberty and early adulthood.
As expected, all the needs of the little prince were immediately met, not just to protect his health. Once sick, he will be treated according to the highest standards of child care in Tudor. Among other drugs, this standard also includes bitch milk or chicken oil, a mixture with rabbit brain, which can be used as a reliable drug for treating gingival pain. Plaster made of oil and wax “hot compress belly” can treat flatulence. Relatively normally, the little prince’s earache can be relieved by dripping myrrh and oak dregs soaked in honey and wine. At the same time, once he cried in the cradle, the four “cradlers” carefully selected by his grandmother for him must play a role.
Later, when he was a toddler, a large group of girls and women would follow him on tenterhooks to prevent him from tripping, hurting his spine and growing hunchback. His toddler journey may have been helped by a small toy made of brass, which seemed to be popular in royal nurseries all over Europe at that time. It has multiple functions, with wheels under it and a knight ready to go above, so it can not only help a rickety baby to walk, but also throw it around and make a loud noise in a slapstick.
Of course, the original intention of these toys was to hope that the princes could get the proper enlightenment of military skills from the very beginning. This skill is too important. In fact, during this period when all royal children grow up, the awakening of “bloodthirsty instinct” should be cultivated as soon as possible. HansBurgkmair of Augsburg once had a woodcut print showing the game between Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and princes. In the picture, this supposed warm family gathering was depicted as a wanton massacre, and a deadly mini-cannon was ready to “shoot” any passing wild creatures. One child happily shot a songbird in the tree, while the other carefully set a trap.
Elsewhere in the picture, a long bow was temporarily discarded. Of course, we can also infer that Henry’s toys have similar intentions. Although he also owns other toys, such as gyroscopes, dominoes and a real-sized Trojan horse, his toy weapons still have special significance, because he is not only a warrior to fight the French in the future, but also the son of the king, who will fight against the fear of betrayal and death all his life.
In fact, throughout Prince Henry’s childhood, his father did not feel much secure about the throne. The ubiquitous turmoil of this era seems to make it difficult for the new monarch to calm down. In 1485, at least 10 people had a higher position than Henry VII in succession to the throne, and then there would be two impersonators: LambertSimnel) 1, the “fake prince”, and PerkinWarbeck, his more dangerous and lasting colleague, who traveled in Ireland, France and Scotland from 1491 to 1497. In his Latin book SpeculumPrincipis, which was specially written for him by his mentor John Skelton, Young Henry was said to have lived “a life surrounded by scars and death, suspicion and fear, surrounded by unpredictable hidden hatred, duplicity and duplicity. The clouds of war hung over his head. No one could entrust his sincerity, but countless people always came to harass him, disguised as enthusiastic and humble.”
 
Therefore, when the little prince, under the care of Anne Luke, hobbled behind his brothers and sisters and played with his toy weapons, the moat-surrounded Eltemm Palace seemed to be a safe haven, sheltering him from growing up safely.
In 1497, when the Scots threatened the border and were about to bring a crisis, the Cornwall people, under the leadership of lawyer ThomasFlamank and a giant blacksmith named MichaelJoseph, began to set off rebellion in all parts of England, angrily protesting against the king’s “crafty means” to grab “huge profits”. Today, there is still a commemorative plaque on the coffin door of St. Keverne, one of the earliest uprisings, recording how the rebels “marched into London and were suppressed”. But they actually advanced to Blackheath before they were finally defeated. The 5-year-old prince was forced to hide in the WhiteTower with his mother to seek asylum when Cornwall people headed for the capital with tax bills, crutches, sickles and other potentially harmful equipment. At the same time, 15,000 soldiers from counties in southwest England who “ate amazing food and were stout” had encamped in Farnham. At this time, Henry will see Londoners piling up wooden piles in front of the city gate, while the defenders on the defensive tower will sharpen their knives. When the mother and son were trapped in a common danger and waited for the rebel Enemy at the Gates, the boy could not have noticed that his mother might have been scared out of her wits-it was at his age that the latter’s father was defeated by the enemy.
The little prince will not feel uneasy about the fate of the rebels. At dawn on June 16, when the Royal Army launched an attack on these rebels, which are composed of farmers, fishermen and miners, he would be excited in the tower. According to chronicles, these people “experienced great pain and ideological changes” in whether they surrendered to the king’s kindness. At 2 o’clock that afternoon, Henry VII rode across London Bridge. The summer sun made his armor sparkle. He is going to meet the mayor of London and his “brothers in red”. He was followed by prisoners who were chained and piled up like garbage in prison wagons. In Blackheath, the sight of tombs everywhere lasted for two centuries. Later, Flamank’s body was divided into four pieces and placed in four gates in London to make an example of others.
Prince Henry certainly did not see these poor bodies-they appeared closer to the viewer than the heads on London Bridge, and they were more frightening and frightening. 


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