A Review of Studies on Civil War Memory in American Historians

2020-07-04 | By Historian | Filed in: World.

· Historical Theory and History of Historiography·

A Review of Studies on Civil War Memory in American Historians

The history of Civil War is one of the hottest and most fruitful fields in the study of American history.It should be pointed out that it is equally important to write about the extension of the American Civil War, that is, the struggle between the North and the South for the dominance of the war memory after the end of the military conflict.Although history is written by the victors, the South can use it.A lost careerLost Cause) narration, which successfully builds a brilliant memory of a failed war.In recent years, the rise of memory research not only organically combines the history of civil war with the post-war history of the United States, but also provides a new perspective for the historical writing of civil war, reconstruction and the Gilded Age.2017The ethnic conflict that broke out in Charlotte Ville, Virginia, USA in the summer of 1965 demonstrated the practical significance of the study of civil war memory.This violent incident fully demonstrates that the memory of the American Civil War plays an important role in national identity and the change of the current situation.
Scholars generally believe that the key to memory research lies in distinguishing the nature of history and memory.History is an external and generalized form of experience, while memory is an internal, individual or group form of experience.History can provide an external perspective, while memory can provide an internal perspective and form a subjective position.Historian Saul·Friedlander (Saul Friedlander) believes that memory can build a bridge between abstract historical research and fragmented personal experience.Survivors’ memories may not be accurate, but they can tell people how they feel and interpret historical events and provide some personal or group perspective from within the events.
In this articleHistoryThe word refers specifically to the narrow sense of history other than memory writing.Historical writing contributes to the formation of historical memory, which in turn promotes the evolution of historical writing.It should be noted that the writing of memory is not necessarily carried out by historians, and the writer is often the party who experienced a certain event.The study of civil war memory is helpful for civil war historiography to move towards a more objective, fair and diversified development direction.The study of the memory of the American Civil War refers to the investigation of1865The relationship between the civil war memory of different groups and their times after the year, mainly analyzing the relationship between social, political, cultural and religious factors and the formation, development and change of memory.The domestic academic research on the American Civil War is mainly concentrated in the field of history, and only a few papers focus on historical memory.On the basis of analyzing the relationship between the writing of civil war history and the memory of civil war, this paper showsA lost careerAndFederal causeThe two narrative paths sort out the general situation of the study of civil war memory in American historians and the latest research transformation.

First, “A lost careerMemory andHis academic research

According to Southern journalist Edward·Boyard (Edward Pollard) in1866The concept of,A lost careerIt refers to the construction of civil war memories by white southerners after the war.Defend the defeat and try to retake it inEverything lost in the war.Until it was noticed by professional historians, a few southern veterans wroteA lost career, is only some kind of personal memory or group memory.This kind of civil war memory originated during and after the war and was mainly preserved in the form of veterans’ exchanges, family dictations and diaries.However, due to the influence of war hatred and political environment,19In the late 20th century, intellectuals in the north and south were unwilling to discuss it.After the American-Spanish War, with the gradual specialization and scientization of American historiography research,A lost careerFrom a local memory to a historical memory.Only after the Vietnam War did American scholars really begin toA lost careerAs a research paradigm, it explores the changing process of memory of the Southern Civil War.
(1)A lost careerThe origin of
At first,A lost careerOnly former South General Jubal·Early’s Personal Interpretation of the Civil War.Later, through working with Robert·With Li’s correspondence and the public publication of his personal memoirs, Early’s Civil War cognition slowly solidified as a collective memory.In addition to weakening the important role played by slavery in triggering the Civil War,A lost careerIt also endowed the pre-war South with various virtues and built the separatist act into a glorious struggle to safeguard the way of life in the South.According to Early’s assumption,A lost careerIt consists of five major arguments.State power theoryHighlighting that the civil war was not caused by slavery,On the Advantage of Northern ResourcesAndOn the Benefit of SlaveryNot only did it provide psychological comfort to the defeated southern society, but it also highlighted the southern region.Victims of warThe image of,Longstreet’s Theory of Dereliction of DutyHe stressed that the defeat was an accidental personal factor and was not caused by the strategic mistakes of the Confederate authorities. “On the Center of Eastern War ZonesThe strategic position of the Eastern War Zone covering Virginia in the Civil War was improved, thus consolidating the role of North Virginia Legion veterans in the Civil War.A lost careerThe dominant position in the.Obviously, this sophistry with rational characteristics helps the Southerners to get out of the haze of defeat.In addition, theNorth Virginia Legion Veterans FederationAlthough following the above argument and actively holding various veterans’ gatherings, the people in the South at this time are more inclined to organize non-political memorial activities in closed spaces, which makesA lost careerThe communication space is relatively limited.But from19Century90Beginning in the s, with the economic development of the new south, southern veteran John·Initiated by GordonLosing one’s career for the second timeAddedSoldiers are braveAndNational reconciliationThese two major themes have acceleratedA lost careerThe process of southernization.At the turn of the century, the federal government’s support for southern veterans to participate in the maintenance of battlefield sites, and the erection of a series of bronze statues of Confederate generals in southern city centers or emerging business districts, became a reality.A lost careerAn important symbol of southernization.Finally, in the American-Spanish War, which greatly promoted regional reconciliation, the northern society acceptedA lost careerPart of the argument.
From20At the beginning of the 20th century, with the curtain call of the generation of veterans on the historical stage,A lost careerBegan to become the historical memory of Americans.Historians act as arbiters in this process.American Historical AssociationFounded in1884The aim is to promote the specialization of historical research.1899James, a northern industrialist with sympathy for the south,·Ford·Rhodes was elected chairman of the association.Although he objectedA lost careerBut expressed sympathy for the post-war situation in the South, saying:Slavery is a historical issue, not a personal moral issue for white southerners.As the son of a North Virginia veteran, Woodrow·Wilson was one of the first scholars to receive professional historiography training. He has long been devoted to studying the Civil War.After becoming the president of the United States, he pointed out in his book Separation and Reunion that the efforts and persistence of the Confederacy in the Civil War were incomparable.Although he admitted that slavery was the root cause of the Civil War, he refused to condemn it morally.Wilson believed that it was unfair to condemn the Americans who established slavery against the historical background of the crazy expulsion of blacks in most British colonies. Slavery was a beneficial system in general.Wilson’s works met the needs of the society at that time, and his views were deeply affected byA lost careerThe influence of.
After World War I, historians putA lost careerIncluded in the writing of the history of the Civil War, to a certain extent, dominates the American memory of the Civil War.1918In, Ulrich, a representative of the Dunning School,·Phillips clearly supportsOn the Benefit of SlaveryHe pointed out:Although slavery is an economically inefficient system, for African Americans, slavery is a training school to get rid of lazy habits.Today, the inhumanity and apathy unique to slavery are widespread in energy-driven factories, and the supervision system of enterprises is set up to maximize production at the lowest cost.” 1920Rhodes made a new interpretation of the history of American reconstruction.He pointed out that although the South’s excuse for defeat was absurd, the history of reconstruction did prove that the black people’s political organization ability was extremely low.1926Edward·Qian Ning (Edward Channing) further demonstrate thatOn the Benefit of SlaveryHe was in Pulitzer Prize-winning “An American History:In the Battle of Independence in the South,20Child labor in the 20th century was far more evil than slavery. Loyal slaves guarded the plantation and protected the hostess and the minor master.Moreover, Qian Ning’s denial of slavery is only based on the consideration of stabilizing the country’s political structure. As he pointed out, two completely different social forms cannot coexist under one form of government. The existence of the former is premised on the destruction of the latter.At the same time, the Progressive School often examines the American Civil War from a critical perspective that avoids moral standpoint. Charles·Mr. and Mrs. Beard (Charles A.Beard) made a value-neutral judgment on the history of the liberation of slaves.They believed that the Civil War was the second revolution in the United States, which destroyed the agricultural society in the South.Slave owners suffered a complete destruction of their property and did not receive any compensation after the war. This is the most terrible seizure of property in Anglo-Saxon history and brings harm to the democratic tradition and personal freedom of the United States.Although they belong to different schools of historiography, Wilson, Rhodes, Channing and Beard’s interpretations of the Civil War are all affected to varying degrees.A lost careerThe influence of memory, at the same time, enhances the convincing power of this southern memory from different angles.Gradually, scholars in the North and South regions accepted the memory of the Civil War, that is, it is a tragedy of the times for African Americans to gain the right to vote and government positions.
In addition, Southern scholars also tried to concoct a convincing set ofA lost careerNationalized narration.Ramsdell (Charles W.Ramsdell) In “Interpretation of the Changing Civil War”, it is pointed out that:“1900Years ago, the South was actually defeated in this battle of memory. Historians basically followed the orthodox narrative mode of the North.Fortunately, it was driven by northern historians such as Phillips and Beard that the American public once again ignited the right toA lost careerThe passion of narration.It is worth noting that Ramsdel’s revision of the interpretation of the Civil War is also shown inSlavery theory of natural deathThat is, once it expands to the West, slavery will surely destroy itself.He judged that if there were no civil war, slavery would decline within a generation.It is thisOn the Uselessness of Civil WarIt strengthens the image of victims in the south and caters to20Century30Racial concepts and anti-war thoughts prevailing in the s.Another Southern scholar, Rank·Ausley (Frank L.Owsley) echoed the Beards’ point of view.He said:Slavery was imposed on the South by Britain before the Independent Revolution. The Southerners should be the earliest abolitionists.It was only when Southerners witnessed the cruelty of British industrial colonization that they were forced to agree to African Americans as their slaves.This rhetoric not only addsA lost careerThe mystery of memory has also accelerated the nationalization of southern memory.
20Century40In the early # s, the peace movement and isolationism prevailed in the United StatesMississippi Valley Historical AssociationOrganization of American HistoriansIn his speech, revisionist historian James·Randall (James G.Randall) Romanticism, which was the first to abandon the civil war, made it clear that the civil war was entirely the result of the selfish politicians and insane extremists at that time who incited the people to belligerence, and these radicals belonged toA reckless generationWhich has resulted in numerous casualties and disappearances.Avery, another representative of the revisionist school,·Craven (Avery O.Craven) In “Avoidable Conflict”, he condemned the abolitionists, Lincoln and Republicans and pointed out that blacks needed a finer management system. Slavery was actually superior to free labor.It can be seen that before the outbreak of World War II, both the nationalist school and the revisionist school were imperceptibly puttingA lost careerAs part of the meta-narrative of the Civil War history.
In addition,A lost careerThe great influence of the company is also reflected in the public memory.Douglas·Sothal·Freeman was born in a family of southern veterans and grew up listening to veterans’ stories and visiting battlefield sites.After graduating from Hopkins University’s Department of History, he worked in1934He completed four volumes of “Biography of Li” in.Americans in the Great Depression are eager to find a hero from the memory of the Civil War as a spiritual pillar to maintain their own survival.In response, Freeman, deeply influenced by the culture of the old South, portrayed Li as a brave, simple, selfless and resolute man in his masterpiece.Because the narrative style meets the needs of the times, the work won Pulitzer Prize.With Freeman’s empathy rhetoric and exquisite and touching plot, General Li’s image in the hearts of the people in the north and south is comparable to that of President Lincoln.In addition, for many white Americans who have not experienced the Civil War, the movie plot of “The Birth of a Nation” and the narrative details of “Gone with the Wind” have been transformed into personal memories of the Civil War.Historical memory dominates the writing of civil war history, and the writing of civil war that meets the needs of the times has also changed the public’s memory of civil war.
From20At the beginning of the century, it was not so muchA lost careerThe dominant position of memory depends on amateur historians and writers in the South. It is better to say that the scientific and professional research of American history endows this memory with permanence.It is the favor of so many professional historians that,A lost careerAfter World War II, it firmly controlled the historical memory of the American Civil War.After the impact of social unrest and the failure of Vietnam War, American scholars began to analyze from the academic level.A lost career, initially changed the civil war history writing by the southern memory entangled situation.
(2)A lost careerEnhancement of Memory Research
Originating from the anti-war movement during the Vietnam War, the American people realized thatA lost careerSome of the arguments of the government are probably the result of artificial manipulation by the government.In response, American scholars began to explore how social culture and political needs shape this collective memory.1973Rowling·G.If pre-war romanticism was the cultural driving force behind the South’s quest for independence, “A lost careerIt is a tool that invokes the old Southern tradition to soothe the trauma of the heart.Later, academic researchA lost careerThe golden age of the has come, and the research level is divided intoA lost careerSouthernization and nationalization, the research objects involve elite veterans, ordinary veterans, female groups, religious organizations, battlefield sites, memorial ceremonies and border states, etc.
About the formation process of collective memory in the south.Charles·Reagan·Wilson regards Confederate memory as a kind of religious worship in “Baptism in Blood”.He pointe out that,A lost careerIn essence, it is a kind of civil religion formed by the integration of ideology, memorial ceremony and folk association (Civil Religion)。After the Civil War, as a cultural dreamA lost careerIt replaced the political dream of seeking regional independence and became the new moral foundation for Southerners.W.Scott·Poole said,A lost careerIt is a kind of public aesthetics designed by Southern conservatives, which uses the fact of failure to purify a series of contradictions existing in the old Southern society and then creates a dream world.
Relating toA lost careerThe nationalization of memory.A school of scholars revolved around the process of how to beautify the memory of the South.From20Century70Beginning in the s, it originated from federal government investment.Sunshine ZoneAs a result, scholars began to analyze the relationship between political needs and regional culture.A lost careerNationalization, represented by Paul·M.Gaston and Thomas·Connelly.Another school of scholars usedNational reunionReunion) narration, to discuss the northern pair ofA lost careerThe process of memory acceptance.Representative figures includeAmerican Historical SocietyChairman James·Ford·Rhodes, Professor of History at Harvard University Paul·H.Buck, Robert·Warren.20Century80At the end of the s, with Habwach’s collective memory theory and Anderson’sImaginary communityWhen the concept was put forward, American academic circles expressed their concern aboutNational reunionTo make adjustments to the research.1987Gayne·Forster pointed out by examining memory groups (Memorial Association, Southern History Association, Confederate Veterans Association, Confederate Daughters Association)20At the beginning of the century, no longer indulged in the past of death.A lost careerIt will help speed up the pace of regional reconciliation.Nina·Silber pointed out that the history of civil war literature is a book based on black people.OthernessThe history of regional reconciliation with the main line.As an important figure in studying the Civil War Monument, Kirk·Savage said that the standardized production of Civil War monuments has realized the convergence of statues of soldiers in the north and south, and is also conducive to promoting regional reconciliation.Yale University Professor David·Brett made a macro study of regional reconciliation and2001Race and Reunion:The Civil War in American Memory.His greatest academic contribution is to divide the memories of different groups into white supremacy memory, regional reconciliation memory and liberation memory. The confluence of the first two memories is at the expense of the third memory.
About the relationship between elite veterans and collective memory in the south.Andrew·F.Raul described the arduous journey of the southern exiles in Mexico, pointing out that it was these memories and experiences that strengthened their return to China.A lost careerThe determination of.Richard·Stahnes believed that veterans consciously preserved some Confederate documents, which provided a basis for historical research and made civil war historians who pursued scientific objectivity firmly believe that the white-supremacy Confederate memory is equal to the truth.In War and Memory of Lee and Other Generals, Gary·W.Gallagher used a large number of letters written to Li by Confederate generals during the Civil War to restore Li’s presence inA lost careerThe hidden role played in the process of rising.To some extent, Early is only the spokesman for Li’s unfinished career.There are also scholars who examine South Carolina Governor Wade from his personal experience and feelings.·Hampton’s Civil War Memory Formed.Terry·A.Barnhardt pointed out that,A lost careerThe popularity is also linked to the “Southern Review” founded by veteran Bledsoe (Southern Review) pertaining to.The rise of the civil rights movement objectively produced the deconstruction of Robert·The possibility of Li Yingxiong’s memory.1967Thomas·L.Connelly pointed out in his monograph that it was Li’s lofty image in historical memory that obscured the historical value of the western battlefield, and most of the major victories of the federal army were won in the western battlefield.Then Connelly was1977The new book in # demonstrates Li’s failure as a politician and father, revealing that Li is not a perfect incarnation.Alan·Nolan pointed out that Li’s historical memory is not equal to Li’s history.Michelle·Koda’s research changed Lee’s traditional image of actively cooperating with the federal government after the war.Donald·Collins believes that if it weren’t for the prison sentence, Southern President Davis would have broughtAura of the VictimsWith the public gesture of refusing reconciliation, its image is likely to plummet in southerners’ memory.InA lost careerIn my memory,Stonewall JacksonThe image of the Confederate soldiers is the embodiment of virtue.2010American scholars began to study Jackson’s memory in.Wallace·Heitel’s Exploration19A late-century biographer,20Professional Historians in the 20th Century andA lost careerIt points out that Stonewall Jackson’s memory has obvious constructiveness.A lost careerAlthough memory is there,20The second half of the 20th century gradually declined, but the image of Stonewall Jackson, which represents it, has been continuously favored by Americans, in2003In the film God and General, which was released in, Jackson was beautified as a hero full of love.Although, Haitel tries to deconstructStonewall JacksonHowever, he finally found that after more than 100 years of narrative text evolution, it is no longer possible to completely distinguish Jackson’s historical facts from public memory.
About Ordinary Veterans andA lost careerThe relationship between memory.Some scholars believe that after the initial formation of the southern memory, the southern military academy has become a cultural center. By encouraging military academy students to actively participate in military activities such as commemorative parades and military exercises, ordinary veterans have felt it in public space.A lost careerThe unique charm of.Stephen·Sodgren pointed out that,1893—1932The Confederate Veterans Magazine in ensured the continuity of the Confederate collective memory and historical memory.Other scholars discussed the relationship between Confederate memory andA lost careerThe conflict between.John·Mprich paid attention to the dispute between the North and South veterans caused by the memory of the Pillaugh massacre, and believed that the disinfection of the memory of Pillaugh by the South veterans increased the public’s understanding ofA lost careerThe degree of trust.
About women andA lost careerThe relationship between memory.Drew·Foster visited the South in the Civil War.The Ministry of Female Slave Owners pointed out that Southern women were not the strongest supporters of the Southern cause.Mitchell·Gillespie analyzed the relationship between southern woman Guy andA lost careerThe subtle connection between.Caroline·E.Jenny stressedWomen’s Memorial AssociationIt plays an important role in shaping the memory of the Southern War.In different times, the roles and functions of Southern women’s organizations in the process of shaping the collective memory of the Civil War are different. This paper reinterprets them from the perspective of funeral and remembrance.19The influence of southern women in public space has become a new topic in the 21st century.21At the beginning of the 20th century, there was a hot research on reconciliation memory in American academic circles.Karan·L.Cox said,Confederate Federation of DaughtersPush forwardA lost careerThe popularity of memory is closely related to the process of regional reconciliation. Its establishment is closely related to the strong support of northern women’s organizations.Sarah·Gardner examined the development of women’s literature in the South.
Just like Gila·Novariel said that memory research has a “TraditionHierarchy——“The field of memoryChristian, an expert on national military parks·He said,20Century90Chronological chronologicalInterpretation of RevolutionInterpretive Revolution),A lost careerThe monopoly of discourse power in the interpretation of the historical value of battlefield sites by memory has changed.Morey discussedA lost careerMemory is an important weapon for Gettysburg National Military Park to resist the development of surrounding commercial tourism and strengthen the protection of civil war relics.On the Relationship between Memorial Ceremonies and Regional Politics, Mitchell·A.Rose, in Mourning General Lee’s Ceremony and Blocking the Reconstruction of New Orleans, discusses the change of the state government from banning memorials to acquiescing in memorials during the reconstruction period, with the intention of explaining the key role played by memorials in destroying the reconstruction of Congress.
About the Memorial Ceremony andA lost careerThe relationship between memory.William·Blair used sociological and ritual theories to deeply analyze the political and cultural implications of civil war commemorative activities in different historical periods.He said,City of the DeadCities of the Dead) in19Century60The end of the 1990s was not a catalyst for regional reunion, but a stage for political struggle.John·Cox studied the role of the Confederate flag in the memory of the Civil War.Robert·Cook studied “A lost careerThe conflict between memory and the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of civil war.This commemoration did not achieve the effect of uniting the American people against the Soviet Union. On the contrary, it intensified the conflicts between black and white races and even stimulated a few black people to resist to extreme violence.
The state or city concerned is related toA lost careerThe relationship between memory.Thomas·Brown explained the reasons for the difficult transformation of South Carolina after the Civil War from the perspective of cultural ceremony.Brian·Burns used urban theory and statistical data to prove thatA lost careerMonument building movementAnd conservative ideas have seriously hindered the development of Richmond.Some scholars are also concerned aboutA lost careerThe Evolution of Memories in Border State Areas, Anne·E.Marshall, Tom·Lee and David·Graham studied Kentucky, Tennessee and Maryland respectively.These studies show that the method of dividing the nature of civil war memory by the north and south regions and political loyalty is flawed, and wartime loyalty is not completely consistent with post-war memory.Jones·C.Insco pointed out that the memory of civil war in the western part of the Confederacy is often the same as that in the eastern part.A lost careerMemories conflict because the western war zone is dominated by disturbance and attack, while the eastern war zone is dominated by regular army confrontation. The latter’s combat mode is easy to produce romantic feelings and infinite reverie.
Anyway, from20Century70Since the middle of the s, the related works have gradually abandoned their unconscious preference for southern culture in terms of written expressions, but their core of discussion still cannot be shaken off.A lost careerThe fetters of memory.Admittedly, the above research has changed the white people’s racial concept to some extent, but it will take some time to change their historical memory of the Civil War.This also just shows that in the process of studying the memory of the Civil War in American academic circles,Federal causeIt seems to be lost,A lost careerIs permanent.

Second, “Federal causeMemory and Its Academic Research

Federal causeUnion Cause) is a historical truth that has long been forgotten by the American public. It emphasizes that the maintenance of federal unity and the liberation of blacks are interdependent. The soldiers in the South are enemies on the battlefield and are not noble fighters advocated in the narrative of national reconciliation. Their struggle is a rebellion against the United States.The victory of the Federation was not won by the advantage of human resources, but by bloody fighting and the justice of the cause.Yes.However, Northern Democrats and border states advocate excluding the liberation of slaves fromFederal causeOutside.In the early post-war period, the largest veterans’ organization in the northGrand Republican ArmyParticular emphasisFederal causeIn memory, they recorded their fighting experiences and constantly praised the great achievements of Lincoln, Grant and Sherman.At the same time, black soldiers and women are shapingFederal causeMemory also plays an important role.ButFederal causeIt is better to embody traumatic memory.A lost careerSo exclusive and emotional, so until20Century80At the end of the # s,Federal causeIt’s just a lost memory.

(1) RecoveredFederal causeMemory

After the end of the American Civil War, northerners had contradictory attitudes on how to view the war. They wanted to avoid the Civil War experience rather than forgive the South.Ulysses·General Grant wrote in his memoirs:When I received General Li’s begging letter, I rejoiced.Now, I am inexplicably sad.I feel that as long as I don’t rejoice in the downfall of this enemy, I can be any other what.I will not doubt the sincerity and persistence of this enemy who has fought bravely for a long time for what I think is the worst and most excused cause of a nation.Some people think that this passage is Grant’s acceptance.A lost careerThe hard evidence of memory.In fact, he still stressed that the Civil War was a rebellion provoked by slavery in the South.However, after experiencing a national tragedy and economic crisis, he believed thatFederal causeIt should also be addedNational reunionFacing the surging wave of regional reconciliation, Friderick·Douglas called for white peace as the beginning of marginalizing the memory of the black civil war.In order to preserve this precious racial memory, black veteran Williams chose to participate in the advocacy of racial integration.Grand Republican ArmyChapter, and wrote “1861—1865The History of the Black Army in the Rebel War.In addition, white officer Thomas·Higginson and Louis·Emilio also recorded his own experiences.However, with the North and South veterans in19At the end of the century, the publication of “Official Records of Rebel Wars” jointly written by the Institute temporarily sealed up the memory of the Black Civil War.

The First World War provided an important opportunity for black Americans to restore their racial memory.Black historian Carter·Wooderson has made great contributions to the development of African American history.1916In, he founded the first institution for the study of black history——The Black Life History Research Institute founded the journal “Black History Newsletter” and established the “Black Life History Newsletter” in1926The year will be annual2The second week of the month is set toBlack History WeekIn this connection, it is emphasized thatLiberationIn the history of the black people.ReceiveBlack Life History Research InstituteWith the aid of the government, Du Bois put forward the assertion that the Civil War was a general strike by black Americans.The intergenerational transmission of black historical memory from Douglas to Du Bois is creating a unique collective memory for blacks.Especially during Roosevelt’s reign, it was founded with the help of Du Bois.National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleHe played an important role in preserving black historical memory and promoting the civil rights reform movement.

20Century50Appeared in the sConsensus schoolReplaced the reformists who highlighted class conflicts and regional conflicts.Representative David·Porter pointed out that the root cause of the civil war was that the North and South forces with similar racial concepts could no longer deal with land disputes through political means.Dudley·Cornish was an early white historian who studied black civil war soldiers in depth. He discussed the performance of black soldiers on the battlefield and their struggle against racial discrimination in the army.

1968Year4Month, Martin·Luther·Kim was assassinated.In order to reflect the deep participation of blacks in American history, James·McPherson published the book “The Civil War History of Black Americans”.At the same time, young Americans launched an anti-mainstream cultural movement aimed at opposing traditional values and advocating feminism.These events accelerated the changes in the historical memory of the Civil War, and American historians were determined to re-study the issue of slavery.During the Great Depression, President Roosevelt approvedWPAThe project collected more than 2,000 oral stories from former slaves, George·Rowick compiled these oral data into41Volume, Become RetrievedFederal causeAn important database of memories.1976In, the United States federal government launchedFree People and Southern History ProjectThe compilation of more than 50,000 original archives played a key role in the study of the history of the Black Civil War in the South.As a scholar who experienced the civil rights movement, Eugene·Jerome Seville criticizedOn the Benefit of SlaveryThis paper analyzes the internal conflicts between slave owners’ patriarchy and slave resistance, and examines the religious forms of slaves that were not paid attention to in the past.Thomas·Bailey reflected on the influence of slavery on the United States today and divided abolitionists into gradualists and radicals.The research of the above historians is to findFederal causeMemory takes the first step.

It was the attack on the poor performance of the U.S. Military in Vietnam that prompted many scholars to turn their attention to ordinary soldiers in the Civil War.Federal causeMemories wake up.20Century80In the early s, American scholars realized the importance of studying soldiers’ combat motives.Gerald·Lindeman pointed out that the fundamental difference between the front and the rear made the soldiers give up all kinds of pre-war ideas.Different from the experience of the residents in the rear, the soldiers in the north and south abandoned their pre-war ideology after the war.To this, Earl·Hess retorted that it was the cruel reality of the battlefield that strengthened the values and ideology of the northern soldiers before the war.James·McPherson further deepened Hess’s point of view.After comparing the motives of the soldiers in the north and south, he pointed out that both sides were fighting for their comrades and different undertakings.

From the academic point of view of Jerosevy, Bailey, Hess, Lindeman and McPherson, they are all deeply influenced byConsensus schoolThis paper mainly discusses the practical consequences of the Civil War on American society, that is, to reflect on the aftermath of slavery from the moral level, to argue about the limitations of the Civil War from the perspectives of the bottom crowd, battlefield casualties, social concepts and ideological conflicts, and toFederal causeConnected with the bottom group mainly composed of black soldiers.In other words, it was the consensus school that started the research.Federal causeA new world of memory.

(2)Federal causeRevival of Memory Research

20Century90In the early ‘s, David·Brett in “Friedrich·Douglas’ Civil War:Maintaining Faith in Liberation Day “was first proposed inLiberate memoryHe said that in the eyes of the black leader, the achievements of this terrible struggle must not be forgotten in the name of patriotism.John·Neff analyzedFederal causeMemory originated in the national military cemetery.Donald·R.Schaeffer pointed out that the overall quality of life of black veterans is better than that of non-soldiers.His point of view proves that joining the army in exchange for citizenship is not empty talk.Fitzhugh·Brendage’s masterpiece the Southern past:The Conflict between Race and Memory discusses the internal relationship between civil war memory, municipal construction and apartheid.Catherine·Clark pointed out that the debate between the black people in the South on the memorial ceremony and process not only reflects the contradiction of the black people’s definition of themselves, but also is a useful screening of the content and significance of the black history. The concept of black citizenship was slowly formed during the celebration.Van En·Zem examined the black and white women who participated in the commemoration in Virginia and believed that black women had a more say in celebrating Liberation Day.Jon·Wiener analyzed Martin·Luther·King’s speech pointed out thatBill of RightsNot all the problems of the blacks have been solved, which makes it necessary for the blacks to continue their struggle in the Civil War Memory War.

Relating toFederal causeThe spiritual leader in memory.The representative figure in the study of Lincoln’s memory is beauty.Lin·Peterson.He divided the construction of Lincoln’s mass memory into two stages:19The 1970s and 1980s were the shaping period of Lincoln’s political memory.20The 1920s and 1930s were the formative period of Lincoln’s folk memory.Schwartz retorted that it was the assassination that transformed Lincoln from a controversial president to an icon that could not be desecrated. He put forward the view that the Civil War generation did not recognize Lincoln’s greatness and stressed that his personal attitude towards Lincoln was different from history textbooks and public memorial texts.Nina·Silber said that for white Americans who took part in World War II, Lincoln’s image was not only an embodiment of regional reconciliation, but also an interpretation of relying on federal government power to counter dictatorships.It is worth noting that the study of Lincoln’s memory is a useful attempt by American scholars to break through the theoretical framework of French collective memory.This theory attaches importance toThe field of memoryIt plays an important role in social groups, but ignores the interaction between personal ideas and group memory.In fact, personal beliefs can supplement the collective memory structure based on text and symbol, and can explain the persistence and variability of collective memory.Therefore, personal beliefs are not only the product of Lincoln’s image, but also its source. The aggregation of personal beliefs is also changing the social environment in which beliefs are formed.If the study of General Lee’s memory is going through the process of de-mythology, then the change of Grant’s evaluation is an attempt to restore the original truth, represented by Joan.·Wolfe.It is stigma that makes Grant’s personal myth far from General Lee’s.Due to executionStrategy of marching into the seaSherman is often described by the world as a destroyer and butcher.In fact, Sherman has never committed any massacre in Atlanta. He only set the city on fire after forcibly expelling local residents.Carroll·Reardon, Edward·Cordill examined Georgians and Sherman’s memories during World War I respectively.Annie·Sarah·Rubin re-examined and evaluated Sherman’s legacy from the perspective of modern warfare.Thus, with the change of the current situation, the historical memory of Sherman is not always gloomy and fearful.

About Ordinary Veterans andFederal causeThe relationship between memory.In his discussion of “Commemorating Freedom in the Period of National Reconciliation”, Harris believed that during the Civil War, most of the northern volunteers refused to contact the blacks and opposed the liberation of the blacks as the purpose of the war. However, with the interference of party politics on the memory of the Civil War, the northern society had toFederal causeAs the core of civil war memory.Brian·Jordan believes that unlike the devastated South, in order to consolidateFederal causeMemory, the North can only use the image of disabled veterans to prevent those soldiers who consecrated American land with blood and their struggles from being forgotten.Barbara·Garoun delves deeply into the defense of federal memoryGrand Republican ArmyOrganization, pointed out that advocating racial integration is an important concept of the Veterans Organization.Francis·Clark analyzed the relationship between northern women andFederal causeMemory of the relationship, pointed out that they uphold the humanitarian thought to speed up the understanding ofFederal causeThe pace of memory forgetting.

Notably,Federal causeMemory also has many aspects.Scott·Poole pointed out in his study of the abolitionist memory of the Civil War that in an anniversary speech, Higginson, who had supported the Brown Uprising, abandoned the position that the Civil War was caused by slavery and claimed that the Civil War was a battle between nationalism and statehood.The reason for such a huge ideological change is that he realized that nationalism can no longer promote racial equality, shed the moral aura that nationalism once had, and classified it with statehood.Stopher explored the racial color of abolitionist memory.Christian·Keller studied the German ethnicityFederal causeMemory points out that northerners have long feared German immigrants and soldiers and slandered them.In response, the latter instead emphasized the continuity between the American Civil War and the German Unification War in order to dilute the American nature of the Civil War.If southern religion promoteA lost careerThe development of memory, the Northern Church is rightFederal causeThe tear of memory.Edward·Bloom found that Northern Protestantism is reconstructingWhite supremacyNational identity has played a key role.Famous evangelical priests deliberately erased memories of slavery and its racial issues in their sermons, and blurred confrontational political ideas with similar combat examinations of North and South veterans.Larry·Gallas pointed out that,19In the late 20th century, in the collective memory of most northerners, the narrative of rescuing slaves was only an excuse to resist convention, complicated etiquette and traditional order, not a reason to strive for racial progress.At this time, the narrative of the destruction of slavery has degenerated into an epic of white people praising themselves, losing its inherent moral and political significance.In addition, the white liberation memory also has some metamorphosis.Natalie·Lin pointed out that the white memory of liberation finally gave the United States moral legitimacy to colonize Cuba and the Philippines.

Federal causeIt is not only accepted by some southerners who advocate national unity, but also recognized by people in the federal border states who oppose the liberation of slaves. Therefore, the memory of the black civil war should not be compared with the memory of the black civil war.Federal causeTo confuse.In Garoun’s view, emphasis is placed onFederal causeIt is only a way for the black community to try to preserve the memory of the Civil War and cannot cover the collective or historical memory of all blacks.In fact, according to the knowledge gained from relevant research,19Century80In the s, several tensions of black civil war memories appeared in ethnic culture.Memory tension represents a race or nation’s different views and understandings of the past.On the one hand, white people through the veterans reunion culture,A lost careerThe formation of memory and the prosperity of civil war literature spanning generations have further reduced the tension of memory between the white people in the north and south.On the other hand, black Americans have split up in understanding the memory of the Civil War, resulting in seven different forces and tensions of nature.They are respectively, first, remembering that the past of slavery was a dark blank period, represented by Douglas.Secondly, the theory of moderate memory of slavery, because the experience of slavery is a shame, blacks choose to remember black soldiers, sailors and the black people who contributed to the victory of the Civil War, with Alexander as the representative figure.·Kramer.Thirdly, indulging the thought, believing that the experience of being enslaved is a valuable racial experience and the only way to realize racial promotion, with Booker as the representative figure.·Washington.Fourthly, the natural mission theory centered on pan-Africanism, millennia and Ethiopia, represented by Henry, the first black chaplain in the army.·McNeill·Turner.Fifth, the patriotism of African Americans is mainly represented by the black people in the North.The sixth is that slavery and war were intentionally arranged by God, and the representative figure was James, Bishop of the Anglican Church of America.·Holly.Seventh, some free people’s nostalgia for slavery.These seven kinds of group memories have no clear boundaries, overlap and conflict with each other, seriously weakening the integrity andFederal causeThe attraction of memory.

Three, The Transformation of Civil War Memory Research;Towards Multiple Socialization

20At the end of the century, Americans generally realized thatA lost careerIt is only a distorted memory of the civil war, not an objective historical fact, but only emphasizesFederal causeMemories seem to have some morePolitically correctThe smell of.Enter21In the 20th century, the study of civil war memory became more abundant and began to include issues such as collective death, prisoner groups and veterans’ living conditions.
Drew is the most influential book in promoting the transformation of memory history research.·Foster’s “The Nation of Suffering:Death and the American Civil War.Starting from the evolution of civil war people’s understanding of death, the book analyzes the relationship between soldiers’ death and civil war, highlightingThe karma of deathThe profound influence on the post-war society of the United States proposed that the similar death culture between the North and the South laid an emotional foundation for the realization of regional reconciliation.This is about David·Brett’sBusiness and commentaryWith Nina·Silber’sLiterature and ExplanationAn important supplement to this is also an amendment to Neff’s proposal that memorial ceremonies hinder regional reconciliation.
At the same time, the war on terror has also triggered a debate in American society on the belligerent status of enemy non-combatants and their disposal methods, which has made the experience and memory of civil war prisoners of war who have been silent for many years the focus of academic discussions.Based on Charles·Sanders’ Research Results on Civil War Prisoners of War Policy, Benjamin·G.Claude Yu2010Indelible Violence:The Civil War Prisoners of War Camp in American Memory “.This is a masterpiece that studies the destruction of national identity by the memory of prisoners of war. It holds that the source of the conflict between black and white memory lies in the politicization of the issue of prisoners of war. Once the pace of regional reconciliation is taken, the memory of black prisoners of war will easily be forgotten.The author also argues that the memory of prisoners of war is independent ofReconciliation MemoryA lost careerMemory andLiberate memoryThe fourth kind of memory.What is more valuable is that Claude pointed out that the changes in the historical memory of prisoners of war in the Civil War are also related to the social environment.From20Century30In the s, emotional memory turned to the stage of detail memory to construct national identity. William·Hastings (William Hesseltine) in1930From an objective and detached perspective, he wrote “Civil War Prisoners of War Camp” in, analyzing the exchange of prisoners of war, the mentality of prisoners of war and the situation of prisoners of war camps in different categories. However, due to the mainstream social ideological trend, he tried his best to avoid the racial factors that accelerated the deterioration of the exchange of prisoners of war.20Century50In the s, detailed memory turned to the stage of objective memory.Cantor (Mackinlay Kantor) published the historical fiction Andersenville, which proves that there have been situations similar to the Nazi Holocaust in American history by comparing the Nazi concentration camp with the Andersenville prison camp.
The fact that American veterans who took part in the Iraq war are difficult to integrate into society and their families also makes it inevitable to re-examine the war memories and post-war experiences of civil war veterans.James·Martin subverted David·The tender military-civilian relationship described by Brett.In his view, the contradiction between the public’s praise of the soldiers’ bravery and the opposition to the federal government’s provision of adequate pensions to post-war veterans led toFederal causeAn important factor for memory to be forgotten.Some scholars also believe that the scenes of tragedy on the battlefield cannot be erased from the memory of veterans. The habit of smoking opium formed in field hospitals makes disabled veterans unable to live normally. All kinds of psychological trauma caused by combat experience cannot be understood by the public and the government. A few desperate veterans even commit suicide for this.
Based on previous research results, Caroline·Jenny in Memory Civil War:The Limitation of Reunion and ReconciliationRegional reconciliationAndNational reunionImportant distinctions have been made.She noted that,National reunionThe process of reunion began after the end of the Civil War. Reunion was not only the source of legitimacy for federal loyalists to take part in the war, but also the primary task of post-war reconstruction. Southerners reluctantly accepted political reunion and became American citizens again.Regional reconciliationHowever, it is difficult to define clearly. The main driving force for reconciliation is not rationality, but emotional impulse.For some, reconciliation means understanding of the wrong behavior of the enemy. For others, reconciliation means deliberate silence on some sensitive issues. Eventually, through the efforts of some North and South veterans, shrewd politicians and commercialists,Regional reconciliationIn19It was not until the end of the century that it became a memory of civil war, but it was not widely accepted by the generation that experienced civil war.On the basis of inheriting Brett’s theory of liberating memory, Jenny further pointed out that with the passage of the Civil War, federal veterans not only refused to forget that slave owners were the main culprits that triggered the war, but also constantly stressed their role in the liberation cause:The Union army saved the Union, destroyed slavery, and the Star-Spangled Banner flew again across the United States.However, it is worth noting that Jenny believes that although white federalists have admitted that blacks and slavery are part of the Civil War by setting up the Boston Shaw Monument and the Indianapolis Monument successively, this does not mean that they sincerely support free people and black women to acquire citizenship.In fact, in the hearts of white federal veterans, slavery should be treated differently from race.Finally, Jenny also completed Brett’s American-Spanish War.Regional reconciliationShe pointed out that unlike civil war veterans, women in the north and south lack platforms to show their heroic dedication like battlefield ruins.Women in the north take care of the wounded in a stable rear and are rarely threatened by war, flight, hunger and death.However, in this civil war and its reconstruction, southern women experienced no less suffering and emotional burden than southern veterans.It was the fundamental difference between the North and South women’s feelings towards the Civil War that made the reconciliation between women not complete until the First World War.In addition, prostitutes, deserters, military trials and freemen expelled from refugee camps by federal troops in guerrilla warfare have also become new issues of concern to civil war historians.
Under the influence of environmental history and medical social history, the study of civil war memory has also seen an interdisciplinary and socialized turn, such as discussing the memory of disabled southern veterans, the civil war memory of a few immigrants,Nanny mythThe deconstruction of military environment and veterans’ memory.Humphries in2013The Complete Tragedy:The Health Crisis in the American Civil War pointed out that the Civil War brought about the greatest health disaster in the history of the United States.Jim·Downs used a large number of Free People’s Bureau files and personal diaries to discuss the influence of racial discrimination on black diseases and deaths.Bilan·Craig·Miller examined the problem of amputations by Southerners during the Civil War and pointed out that after the reconstruction was over, funding these amputations was praised asLiving monumentOf the disabled veterans becameA lost careerAn important part of memory.While studying minority veterans, David·T.Gleason studied the attitude of the Confederate Irish immigrants towards the outbreak of the Civil War, believing that they promoted the reburial movement in the South and for “A lost career” It laid the foundation for the rise of.Carnison·Huang Alai explored the civil war experience and memory of the New England gentleman group.He pointed out that before the Civil War, New England’sBrahmanIt is a class with social, economic and cultural power. They believe in the values composed of industrial development, free labor force and social responsibility.But whenBrahmanAfter young college officers entered the southern region, they strongly felt that cultural education was the basis for the real liberation of blacks, and gradually agreed with the view that white southerners were fighting for responsibility and honor.After the end of the Civil War, based on their personal experience in the South, these young elites who took part in the war gave up the radical idea of abolishing slavery and put forward the idea that peace and prosperity can only be restored through the reunion of the North and South intellectuals.It can be said that this book is another deepening of the study of regional reconciliation.Kathleen·Clinton’s Loyal to Slave Women in the SouthNanny mythDeconstruct.She pointed out that during the Civil War, some black women in the South not only opposed slavery in a unique way, but also took an active part in the rescue of escaped slaves and voluntarily joined the Union Army’s battlefield rescue team.Eric·Taking Virginia, Mississippi and Maryland west of Matheson as the research objects, this paper analyzes the influence of infidelity and its memory on reshaping American identity.The discussion on the nature of guerrilla warfare has also aroused the interest of civil war scientists.After sorting out the general situation of guerrilla warfare, Daniel·Sutherland made it clear that guerrilla warfare in the civil war was by no means an episode. This mode of war changed the military policy of the federal government.Inspired by the study of guerrilla warfare in the Civil War, Matthew·In his doctoral thesis, Hilbert examined the evolution of civil war memory in Missouri, a border state.On the basis of Brett’s memory classification, he proposedGuerrilla memoryGuerrilla Memory)。He pointed out that this memory is not only related to the family or community, but also has a certain wilderness in the West to highlight the unique position of Missouri guerrilla warfare in the narrative of the Civil War.In addition, the constructionGuerrilla memoryBoth Federalists and Confederate supporters have great resistance to the narrative of regional reconciliation in the East.When studying the relationship between civil war battlefield memory and natural environment, some scholars took Atlanta as an example and pointed out that the environmental damage caused by civil war has established a new human-land relationship. The concept of combining natural environment protection with civil war ruins maintenance has become an important ideological source for Americans to develop various national parks after the war.
In addition, in recent years, the perspective of global history has also played an important role in the writing of civil war history.Some scholars have analyzed the importance of British attitude in the American Civil War, or compared the Mexican Civil War that took place in the same period with the American Civil War.Some scholars also put the American Civil War on19Under the background of the formation of a nation-state in the 21st century.This shift in the global perspective of civil war history has pushed forward the readjustment of the perspective of civil war memory research.In the collection of essays “The Road to Total War:In the American Civil War and the German Unification War, some scholars discussed the inheritance of the Civil War Memorial Ceremony and the Franco-Prussian War Memorial Ceremony.In the collection of essays “Different Restoration:In a Comparison between American Reconstruction and German Reconstruction, many authors analyze the similarities and differences between the two reconstruction from the aspects of comparative feasibility, economy, politics, culture and national identity.One of the papers pointed out that the southern United States underwent a relaxed Johnson reconstruction before a harsh congressional reconstruction.On the contrary, after the end of World War II, the U.S. Government’s attitude towards the reconstruction of western Germany was cold.However, due to the emergence of the Cold War, in order to rearm West Germany, the reconstruction policy became moderate.When comparing the formation of two kinds of collective memories of defeat, some scholars pointed out that the key to the failure of reconstruction is that the U.S. Federal government cannot find a balance between post-war reconstruction and the civil war memories of different groups.However, for West Germany, the complete downfall of the Third Reich made the generation who experienced the war give up whitewashing the memory of World War II, thus making it difficult to have a negative impact on the memory of World War II of the post-war generation.When the post-war generation matured day by day, they started West German society’s reflection on World War II by criticizing their parents’ experiences.In short, different from the model of rebuilding the southern United States, the U.S. Occupation authorities adopted the policy of “first strict and then lenient”, fully understood the subtle mentality of the defeated people, and successfully completed the democratic transformation of defeated Germany.
There are also scholars who have deeply studied the influence of the memory of the reconstruction of the South on the democratization process in South Africa.Thomas·Bostolmann pointed out that the U.S. Government has long opposed South Africa’s many drastic policies in the process of de-apartheid because it is unable to get out of the memory of reconstruction failure and is worried about the abuse of power and suppression of whites by black officials in South Africa.Brittany·Powell·Kennedy compared Franco’s Spain with the southern United States before the civil rights movement.She pointed out that if the memory of the defeat in the Spanish-American War is a hotbed of Spanish fascism, Franco’s destruction of the National Coalition Government is a redemption of Spanish tradition, just like the end of radical reconstruction in the southern United States.The collective memory of the defeat had an extremely important impact on the social changes in Spain and the southern United States.Robin·After comparing the museums reflecting the history of apartheid in South Africa and the southern United States, Autrey pointed out that the role of exhibition halls in the construction of identity should not be exaggerated. Two kinds of de-racialized public memories often encounter each other.Anti-public memoryCounter Public Memory).Unfortunately, American academic circles are concerned about commemorating the Civil War.150The research on the anniversary is still shallow.The author’s research found that in order to absorb100The bitter lesson of the anniversary commemoration was that the federal government handed over the right to hold the commemoration ceremony to the state governments and non-governmental organizations.In other words,21In the 20th century, when Americans commemorated the Civil War to safeguard the unity of the Union, they organized it in units of states or counties where battlefield sites were located. This trend seems to go against the original intention of the Civil War in the North.


In the study of the memory of the Civil War, American historians have successively formedA lost careerAndFederal causeThese two narrative paths, the former was constructed by the defeated South to safeguard dignity and guard local autonomy, while the latter was created by federalists to safeguard national unity and dilute slavery.When the United States19Only when professional historical writing appeared at the end of the century did the study of civil war memory deeply influenced by racial thoughts really take shape.With the development of the civil rights movement, the American academic circles traumatized by the Vietnam War began to realize the importance of the consensus school’s attention to the bottom groups including blacks, but there are still various political prejudices in the related memory research.Until20At the end of the century, under the impact of globalization thought, feminism, environmental history, medical social history, emotional sociology, historical psychology and cultural memory theory, the study of civil war memory showed a trend of politicization.In a word, the evolution of civil war memory research is a vivid manifestation of historical writing serving the development of the times.From the review of the memory of the American Civil War in this paper, we can find that,Memory mythIt is those narratives with strong emotional color, based on some historical details but deviating from the subject of facts.Although memory research has become the focus of public opinion after the passing of the parties and direct inheritors of historical events,Memory mythThe influence still exists.ExactlyMemory mythThis special nature of, even those professional historians who are good at using interdisciplinary research to explore the historical truth is still an objective creation.ScienceSex myth, after all, historical research itself cannot be separated from the relativity of truth.However, no matter how the research direction of civil war memory is adjusted, the fact subject that scholars should pay attention to should still beThe question of slavery

In the more than 150 years after the end of the Civil War, apart from controlling the writing of the history of the Civil War, the game between various civil war memories has had a significant impact on the political party politics, government policies, citizenship, gender and race concepts of the United States and the development trend of the country.Similarly, the study of civil war memory has also exerted various impacts on American society.On the one hand, memory research strengthens their national identity and enables Americans to find a sense of historical belonging so as to resist the impact of multiculturalism on American society.The study of the Civil War Memory Field is conducive to the rapid development of Civil War tourism such as military national parks, thus consolidating the long-held martial spirit of the United States.Among them, the most typical example is the recent trend of returning to the traditional style of the Civil War.On the other hand, those memory studies with personal emotion and subjective value judgment will definitely lead to further tearing of American social identity.Academic PairA lost careerThe infatuation inevitably became a hotbed of neo-whiteness and neo-Nazi ideology, although these right-wing organizations openly said that the display of the Confederate flag had nothing to do with racial discrimination.In addition, American politicians are constantly calling on Lincoln’s memory research results to provide historical legitimacy for his interference in the internal affairs of other countries.Along withFederal Career MemoryWith the deepening of the research, in the recent campaign to destroy bronze statues, the black community and its white supporters expressed their denial of the historical narrative constructed by the white southerners by tearing down the statues of General Lee and Stonewall Jackson, in order to rebuild the dominant position of African Americans in the Civil War and the reconstruction of memory.Unfortunately, due to different interest demands, the long-standing memory friction eventually led to2015The Charleston Church Shooting and2017The violence in Charlotte Ville.In addition, American politicians are constantly calling on Lincoln’s memory research results to provide historical legitimacy for his interference in the internal affairs of other countries.Therefore, in order to avoid the interference of realistic politics in academic research, scholars should take slavery as the main line when studying civil war memory, and should not divide the types of civil war memory in a sensational way and based on preconceptions.Just like the scholar Samuel·Graber (Samuel Grabber) said that if the War of Independence only freed the Americans from British political rule, then the Civil War was the beginning of the cultural and spiritual separation of the Americans from the British Empire.Only from the perspective of transnational history, Based on the excavation of new materials and the integration of different group memories from the national level, scholars can extract the commonness between memories and highlight the characteristics of certain types of memories, so as to deeply analyze the essence and evolution of civil war memories, thus reducing the possibility of various differences among the public in memorizing historical events.

The author of this articleChao Luo is an associate professor at the School of History and Culture of Ludong University and a postdoctoral fellow at the School of Journalism and Communication of Shanghai University. Gao Chunchang is a professor at the School of History and Culture of Ludong University.
The original text contains World History, No.2, 2020. Due to the limitation of WeChat platform, comments are omitted. For reference or quotation, please read the original text.

Public Number: World History Editorial Department

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