Second, “Federal cause”Memory and Its Academic Research
“Federal cause”（Union Cause) is a historical truth that has long been forgotten by the American public. It emphasizes that the maintenance of federal unity and the liberation of blacks are interdependent. The soldiers in the South are enemies on the battlefield and are not noble fighters advocated in the narrative of national reconciliation. Their struggle is a rebellion against the United States.The victory of the Federation was not won by the advantage of human resources, but by bloody fighting and the justice of the cause.Yes.However, Northern Democrats and border states advocate excluding the liberation of slaves from“Federal cause”Outside.In the early post-war period, the largest veterans’ organization in the north“Grand Republican Army”Particular emphasis“Federal cause”In memory, they recorded their fighting experiences and constantly praised the great achievements of Lincoln, Grant and Sherman.At the same time, black soldiers and women are shaping“Federal cause”Memory also plays an important role.But“Federal cause”It is better to embody traumatic memory.“A lost career”So exclusive and emotional, so until20Century80At the end of the # s,“Federal cause”It’s just a lost memory.
(1) Recovered“Federal cause”Memory
After the end of the American Civil War, northerners had contradictory attitudes on how to view the war. They wanted to avoid the Civil War experience rather than forgive the South.Ulysses·General Grant wrote in his memoirs:“When I received General Li’s begging letter, I rejoiced.Now, I am inexplicably sad.I feel that as long as I don’t rejoice in the downfall of this enemy, I can be any other what.I will not doubt the sincerity and persistence of this enemy who has fought bravely for a long time for what I think is the worst and most excused cause of a nation.”Some people think that this passage is Grant’s acceptance.“A lost career”The hard evidence of memory.In fact, he still stressed that the Civil War was a rebellion provoked by slavery in the South.However, after experiencing a national tragedy and economic crisis, he believed that“Federal cause”It should also be added“National reunion”。Facing the surging wave of regional reconciliation, Friderick·Douglas called for white peace as the beginning of marginalizing the memory of the black civil war.In order to preserve this precious racial memory, black veteran Williams chose to participate in the advocacy of racial integration.“Grand Republican Army”Chapter, and wrote “1861—1865The History of the Black Army in the Rebel War.In addition, white officer Thomas·Higginson and Louis·Emilio also recorded his own experiences.However, with the North and South veterans in19At the end of the century, the publication of “Official Records of Rebel Wars” jointly written by the Institute temporarily sealed up the memory of the Black Civil War.
The First World War provided an important opportunity for black Americans to restore their racial memory.Black historian Carter·Wooderson has made great contributions to the development of African American history.1916In, he founded the first institution for the study of black history——The Black Life History Research Institute founded the journal “Black History Newsletter” and established the “Black Life History Newsletter” in1926The year will be annual2The second week of the month is set to“Black History Week”In this connection, it is emphasized that“Liberation”In the history of the black people.Receive“Black Life History Research Institute”With the aid of the government, Du Bois put forward the assertion that the Civil War was a general strike by black Americans.The intergenerational transmission of black historical memory from Douglas to Du Bois is creating a unique collective memory for blacks.Especially during Roosevelt’s reign, it was founded with the help of Du Bois.“National Association for the Advancement of Colored People”He played an important role in preserving black historical memory and promoting the civil rights reform movement.
20Century50Appeared in the s“Consensus school”Replaced the reformists who highlighted class conflicts and regional conflicts.Representative David·Porter pointed out that the root cause of the civil war was that the North and South forces with similar racial concepts could no longer deal with land disputes through political means.Dudley·Cornish was an early white historian who studied black civil war soldiers in depth. He discussed the performance of black soldiers on the battlefield and their struggle against racial discrimination in the army.
1968Year4Month, Martin·Luther·Kim was assassinated.In order to reflect the deep participation of blacks in American history, James·McPherson published the book “The Civil War History of Black Americans”.At the same time, young Americans launched an anti-mainstream cultural movement aimed at opposing traditional values and advocating feminism.These events accelerated the changes in the historical memory of the Civil War, and American historians were determined to re-study the issue of slavery.During the Great Depression, President Roosevelt approvedWPAThe project collected more than 2,000 oral stories from former slaves, George·Rowick compiled these oral data into41Volume, Become Retrieved“Federal cause”An important database of memories.1976In, the United States federal government launched“Free People and Southern History Project”The compilation of more than 50,000 original archives played a key role in the study of the history of the Black Civil War in the South.As a scholar who experienced the civil rights movement, Eugene·Jerome Seville criticized“On the Benefit of Slavery”This paper analyzes the internal conflicts between slave owners’ patriarchy and slave resistance, and examines the religious forms of slaves that were not paid attention to in the past.Thomas·Bailey reflected on the influence of slavery on the United States today and divided abolitionists into gradualists and radicals.The research of the above historians is to find“Federal cause”Memory takes the first step.
It was the attack on the poor performance of the U.S. Military in Vietnam that prompted many scholars to turn their attention to ordinary soldiers in the Civil War.“Federal cause”Memories wake up.20Century80In the early s, American scholars realized the importance of studying soldiers’ combat motives.Gerald·Lindeman pointed out that the fundamental difference between the front and the rear made the soldiers give up all kinds of pre-war ideas.Different from the experience of the residents in the rear, the soldiers in the north and south abandoned their pre-war ideology after the war.To this, Earl·Hess retorted that it was the cruel reality of the battlefield that strengthened the values and ideology of the northern soldiers before the war.James·McPherson further deepened Hess’s point of view.After comparing the motives of the soldiers in the north and south, he pointed out that both sides were fighting for their comrades and different undertakings.
From the academic point of view of Jerosevy, Bailey, Hess, Lindeman and McPherson, they are all deeply influenced by“Consensus school”This paper mainly discusses the practical consequences of the Civil War on American society, that is, to reflect on the aftermath of slavery from the moral level, to argue about the limitations of the Civil War from the perspectives of the bottom crowd, battlefield casualties, social concepts and ideological conflicts, and to“Federal cause”Connected with the bottom group mainly composed of black soldiers.In other words, it was the consensus school that started the research.“Federal cause”A new world of memory.
(2)“Federal cause”Revival of Memory Research
20Century90In the early ‘s, David·Brett in “Friedrich·Douglas’ Civil War:Maintaining Faith in Liberation Day “was first proposed in“Liberate memory”He said that in the eyes of the black leader, the achievements of this terrible struggle must not be forgotten in the name of patriotism.John·Neff analyzed“Federal cause”Memory originated in the national military cemetery.Donald·R.Schaeffer pointed out that the overall quality of life of black veterans is better than that of non-soldiers.His point of view proves that joining the army in exchange for citizenship is not empty talk.Fitzhugh·Brendage’s masterpiece the Southern past:The Conflict between Race and Memory discusses the internal relationship between civil war memory, municipal construction and apartheid.Catherine·Clark pointed out that the debate between the black people in the South on the memorial ceremony and process not only reflects the contradiction of the black people’s definition of themselves, but also is a useful screening of the content and significance of the black history. The concept of black citizenship was slowly formed during the celebration.Van En·Zem examined the black and white women who participated in the commemoration in Virginia and believed that black women had a more say in celebrating Liberation Day.Jon·Wiener analyzed Martin·Luther·King’s speech pointed out that“Bill of Rights”Not all the problems of the blacks have been solved, which makes it necessary for the blacks to continue their struggle in the Civil War Memory War.
Relating to“Federal cause”The spiritual leader in memory.The representative figure in the study of Lincoln’s memory is beauty.Lin·Peterson.He divided the construction of Lincoln’s mass memory into two stages:19The 1970s and 1980s were the shaping period of Lincoln’s political memory.20The 1920s and 1930s were the formative period of Lincoln’s folk memory.Schwartz retorted that it was the assassination that transformed Lincoln from a controversial president to an icon that could not be desecrated. He put forward the view that the Civil War generation did not recognize Lincoln’s greatness and stressed that his personal attitude towards Lincoln was different from history textbooks and public memorial texts.Nina·Silber said that for white Americans who took part in World War II, Lincoln’s image was not only an embodiment of regional reconciliation, but also an interpretation of relying on federal government power to counter dictatorships.It is worth noting that the study of Lincoln’s memory is a useful attempt by American scholars to break through the theoretical framework of French collective memory.This theory attaches importance to“The field of memory”It plays an important role in social groups, but ignores the interaction between personal ideas and group memory.In fact, personal beliefs can supplement the collective memory structure based on text and symbol, and can explain the persistence and variability of collective memory.Therefore, personal beliefs are not only the product of Lincoln’s image, but also its source. The aggregation of personal beliefs is also changing the social environment in which beliefs are formed.If the study of General Lee’s memory is going through the process of de-mythology, then the change of Grant’s evaluation is an attempt to restore the original truth, represented by Joan.·Wolfe.It is stigma that makes Grant’s personal myth far from General Lee’s.Due to execution“Strategy of marching into the sea”Sherman is often described by the world as a destroyer and butcher.In fact, Sherman has never committed any massacre in Atlanta. He only set the city on fire after forcibly expelling local residents.Carroll·Reardon, Edward·Cordill examined Georgians and Sherman’s memories during World War I respectively.Annie·Sarah·Rubin re-examined and evaluated Sherman’s legacy from the perspective of modern warfare.Thus, with the change of the current situation, the historical memory of Sherman is not always gloomy and fearful.
About Ordinary Veterans and“Federal cause”The relationship between memory.In his discussion of “Commemorating Freedom in the Period of National Reconciliation”, Harris believed that during the Civil War, most of the northern volunteers refused to contact the blacks and opposed the liberation of the blacks as the purpose of the war. However, with the interference of party politics on the memory of the Civil War, the northern society had to“Federal cause”As the core of civil war memory.Brian·Jordan believes that unlike the devastated South, in order to consolidate“Federal cause”Memory, the North can only use the image of disabled veterans to prevent those soldiers who consecrated American land with blood and their struggles from being forgotten.Barbara·Garoun delves deeply into the defense of federal memory“Grand Republican Army”Organization, pointed out that advocating racial integration is an important concept of the Veterans Organization.Francis·Clark analyzed the relationship between northern women and“Federal cause”Memory of the relationship, pointed out that they uphold the humanitarian thought to speed up the understanding of“Federal cause”The pace of memory forgetting.
Notably,“Federal cause”Memory also has many aspects.Scott·Poole pointed out in his study of the abolitionist memory of the Civil War that in an anniversary speech, Higginson, who had supported the Brown Uprising, abandoned the position that the Civil War was caused by slavery and claimed that the Civil War was a battle between nationalism and statehood.The reason for such a huge ideological change is that he realized that nationalism can no longer promote racial equality, shed the moral aura that nationalism once had, and classified it with statehood.Stopher explored the racial color of abolitionist memory.Christian·Keller studied the German ethnicity“Federal cause”Memory points out that northerners have long feared German immigrants and soldiers and slandered them.In response, the latter instead emphasized the continuity between the American Civil War and the German Unification War in order to dilute the American nature of the Civil War.If southern religion promote“A lost career”The development of memory, the Northern Church is right“Federal cause”The tear of memory.Edward·Bloom found that Northern Protestantism is reconstructing“White supremacy”National identity has played a key role.Famous evangelical priests deliberately erased memories of slavery and its racial issues in their sermons, and blurred confrontational political ideas with similar combat examinations of North and South veterans.Larry·Gallas pointed out that,19In the late 20th century, in the collective memory of most northerners, the narrative of rescuing slaves was only an excuse to resist convention, complicated etiquette and traditional order, not a reason to strive for racial progress.At this time, the narrative of the destruction of slavery has degenerated into an epic of white people praising themselves, losing its inherent moral and political significance.In addition, the white liberation memory also has some metamorphosis.Natalie·Lin pointed out that the white memory of liberation finally gave the United States moral legitimacy to colonize Cuba and the Philippines.
“Federal cause”It is not only accepted by some southerners who advocate national unity, but also recognized by people in the federal border states who oppose the liberation of slaves. Therefore, the memory of the black civil war should not be compared with the memory of the black civil war.“Federal cause”To confuse.In Garoun’s view, emphasis is placed on“Federal cause”It is only a way for the black community to try to preserve the memory of the Civil War and cannot cover the collective or historical memory of all blacks.In fact, according to the knowledge gained from relevant research,19Century80In the s, several tensions of black civil war memories appeared in ethnic culture.Memory tension represents a race or nation’s different views and understandings of the past.On the one hand, white people through the veterans reunion culture,“A lost career”The formation of memory and the prosperity of civil war literature spanning generations have further reduced the tension of memory between the white people in the north and south.On the other hand, black Americans have split up in understanding the memory of the Civil War, resulting in seven different forces and tensions of nature.They are respectively, first, remembering that the past of slavery was a dark blank period, represented by Douglas.Secondly, the theory of moderate memory of slavery, because the experience of slavery is a shame, blacks choose to remember black soldiers, sailors and the black people who contributed to the victory of the Civil War, with Alexander as the representative figure.·Kramer.Thirdly, indulging the thought, believing that the experience of being enslaved is a valuable racial experience and the only way to realize racial promotion, with Booker as the representative figure.·Washington.Fourthly, the natural mission theory centered on pan-Africanism, millennia and Ethiopia, represented by Henry, the first black chaplain in the army.·McNeill·Turner.Fifth, the patriotism of African Americans is mainly represented by the black people in the North.The sixth is that slavery and war were intentionally arranged by God, and the representative figure was James, Bishop of the Anglican Church of America.·Holly.Seventh, some free people’s nostalgia for slavery.These seven kinds of group memories have no clear boundaries, overlap and conflict with each other, seriously weakening the integrity and“Federal cause”The attraction of memory.