Catalogue and Content Summary of the 3rd Issue of World History in 2020

2020-07-09 | By Historian | Filed in: Culture.

“World history” catalogue and

Content Summary

2020

Issue 3


Directory

· Asian History ·

Japan’s China Policy Before and After the Sino-French War

Qiu Fan (Nantong University)

The Concept of Private Property Rights in Meiji Period of Japan

Xu Xiaoguang (Sichuan Normal University)

The Identity Transformation of “Discriminated Tribes” in Modern Japan

Zhou Feifei (Nanjing University of Astronautics and Astronautics)

· History of Europe

Urban Immigrants and Social Integration in France in the Late Middle Ages

Lu Zhao (Tsinghua University)

Montesquieu on the Spirit of Commerce and the Spirit of Conquest

Zhang Chi (Zhejiang University)

The Control of Beer Hall in Early Modern England and the Local Practice of Magistrates

Chuqingdong (Central China Normal University)

· History of the Americas

Hudson River School and the Shaping of American National Identity Consciousness

Yao Nianda (Peking University)

Historical Theory and History of Historiography

Daniel Smail and the Theory of “Deep History”

Zhang Wentao (Institute of World History)

From Head of State’s Political System to Dynasty’s Rule: An Investigation of the Research Path of Early Roman Empire’s Political History

Wang Zhongxiao (Fudan University)

Disputes on Terminology and Definition Criteria of “Middle Class” in Early Modern England

Li Xinkuan (Shanghai Normal University)


English Summaries)

Jian Sun Compiled (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)


Content Summary

Japan’s China Policy Before and After the Sino-French War

Qiu Fan

Executive SummaryBefore the outbreak of the Sino-French War, when facing the invitation of the French alliance, the Japanese government chose to show its kindness to China and declined France’s position based on its own financial, naval and treaty amendments. After the war broke out, the Japanese government turned to a two-handed strategy, betting on both sides. On the one hand, they followed Britain, Germany and the United States on the Sino-French issue. On the other hand, private efforts are still being made to improve relations with China. The purpose of this move is to deal with the different results that the war may lead to, that is, if there is a frenzy of big powers to carve up China or if the war is finally settled peacefully, it will be profitable. With the help of the Sino-French War, the Japanese government has improved its international status, promoted the resolution of internal and foreign problems, and accelerated the pace of arms expansion. The Sino-French War was an early warning signal of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, which objectively led to an advance in the time when Japan launched the war of aggression against China.

Key wordsSino-French War Japanese Government Japanese Policy towards China Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895

 

The Concept of Private Property Rights in Meiji Period of Japan


Xu Xiaoguang

Executive SummaryDuring the Meiji period in Japan, the concept of private property rights was widely spread in the whole society under the influence of western thoughts on the basis of absorbing the legitimate concept of self-interest in modern Japanese towns. Enlightenment thinkers and civil rights theorists broke through the traditional concept that self-interest is “evil” for thousands of years, fully expounded the legitimacy of people’s obtaining private interests and owning private property, and demonstrated the characteristics of private property rights. They hold that the government should not only not interfere with this private right, but also give legal protection. This new thought has made a theoretical interpretation of Japan’s Meiji government’s national policy of “colonizing property and starting a business”, and has had a direct impact on the formulation of the new constitution and laws and regulations on the protection of private property rights, effectively promoting the development of capitalist economy based on private ownership in Japan.

Key wordsThe Concept of Private Property Right in Meiji Period of Japanese History Legitimate Ownership

The Identity Transformation of “Discriminated Tribes” in Modern Japan


Zhou Feifei

Executive SummaryThe “discriminated tribe” originated from untouchables in ancient Japan. After the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government established a centralized state under the modern Mikado system. Under the principle of “one monarch and all peoples”, the tribesmen were organized into ordinary citizens, and their community consciousness was standardized by Shinto and other means, absorbing their technology, labor and land resources into industrial production and even the wartime system. Under the banner of “civilization”, the intellectual debate on the “race” of the tribesmen has affected the people’s discriminatory attitude towards the tribesmen in terms of race, health, region and good and cheap views. The fierce conflict between the ordinary people and the tribesmen has directly pushed the tribesmen onto the road of finding identity reconstruction: trying to integrate into the “harmony” of the emerging nation-state, or pursuing liberation as a “special” “other”. The transformation of Buraku’s occupation, social status and self-identity consciousness accompanied the construction process of Japan’s modern country. Tribal discrimination continues to this day, reflecting the complexity of Japanese society.

Key wordsModern Japan’s Discrimination Tribes and Tribesmen’s Identity Transition Nation State

 

Urban Immigrants and Social Integration in France in the Late Middle Ages


Lu Zhao

Executive SummaryThe large increase in the proportion of immigrants in the urban population was an important feature of the French urban population structure in the late Middle Ages. The inflow of immigrants and their good integration into the urban society constitute an important condition for French urban society to overcome the crisis in the late Middle Ages. There are two ways for immigrants to integrate into urban society: first, municipal authorities screen out some immigrants, grant them citizenship and bring them into the civic community; Second, immigrants spontaneously and autonomously construct diverse social relations, and carry out social exchanges and integration with other residents on the basis of personal morality. These two paths complement each other and promote French urban society to absorb multiple immigrants and realize revival in modern times. Comparatively speaking, social integration is the only way for all immigrants to integrate into urban society, which reflects the initiative and autonomy of immigrant groups in the process of integrating into urban society. It plays a more important role in the mechanism of absorbing immigrants in cities and is the key to realize self-renewal and sustainable development of medieval French urban society.

Key wordsLate Middle Ages Urban Immigrants, Citizen Identity, Social Integration Brotherhood France

Montesquieu on the Spirit of Commerce and the Spirit of Conquest


Relaxation

Executive SummaryIn Montesquieu’s political economy exposition, commercial spirit and conquest spirit are a set of core concepts. There are many explanations in academic circles, but most of them deviate from the context. In order to accurately grasp its meaning, we need to first clarify the argumentative context and historical context of the concept. From the perspective of the debate context, Montesquieu put forward the spirit of commerce and conquest, aiming at refuting the mercantilist’s view of “ancient commercial history and shipping history” in Egypt. Based on the historical context, his business theory aims to subvert the principle of mercantilism and advocate peaceful and mutually beneficial international relations. In a word, Montesquieu’s political economy thought is closely related to his time, and with the agricultural theory represented by Finneron’s viewpoint, it constitutes different orientations for the development and evolution of French political economy in the 18th century.

Key wordsMontesquieu’s Political Economy, Commercial Spirit, Commercial History, Mercantilism

 

The Control of Beer Hall in Early Modern England and the Local Practice of Magistrates


Chuqingdong

Executive SummaryIn the early modern times, the number of beer halls in Britain increased dramatically, the public’s drinking habits became increasingly popular, and the problems of poverty and crime became more and more serious. This caused the state to panic about the social disorder and moral corruption caused by beer halls. In order to strengthen the control of beer halls, the State has issued a series of decrees authorizing magistrates to decide on the issuance of beer halls licenses and punish illegal beer halls operators and customers. As the connecting hub between the central government and the local government, magistrates have a bearing on the implementation and effectiveness of the national law governing beer halls. The local practice of magistrates in controlling beer halls shows that magistrates issue beer halls licenses on the basis of comprehensively considering the needs of the local people for beer halls and the financial resources and conduct of beer halls operators. At the same time, they severely punish illegal beer halls operators and customers, basically following the national laws governing beer halls. This also shows that the local government, represented by magistrates, reached a consensus with the central government on the issue of beer hall control, thus shaping a national governance model of compromise and cooperation between the central government and the local government and providing conditions for the stable transformation of British society.

Key wordsBritish History Beer Hall Regulates Magistrates’ State Governance Franchise

 

Hudson River School and the Shaping of American National Identity Consciousness


Yao Nianda

Executive SummaryIn the early 19th century, when Americans pursued cultural independence, Hudson River School created a painting style with American characteristics based on landscape painting. This school not only created a large number of paintings appreciated by European art critics, but also provided Americans with artistic materials to construct identity consciousness. Painters used landscape paintings to construct a set of geographical spatial images of the United States and linked them with the religious and political superiority of the United States over Europe. The works of Hudson River School echo the political ideas of the United States at that time, visualizing the cultural meaning of wilderness and providing support for the republican system and westward movement in the United States at the cultural level. At the same time, the painting compresses the American landform into geographical symbols, stimulates Americans’ imagination of sharing geographical space, successfully enhances Americans’ sense of geographical belonging, and helps Americans to construct their sense of national identity.

Key wordsAmerican Art History Hudson River School Landscape Painting Wilderness National Identity

 

Daniel Smail and the Theory of “Deep History”


Zhang Wentao

Executive SummaryThe theory of “deep history” advocated by Daniel Smail and others, a professor of history at Harvard University, attempts to provide a new path for writing grand history based on new knowledge of neuroscience. The theory of “deep history” opposes the concept of prehistoric history that separates historical narration, and even opposes drawing a time gap between human biology and culture. It holds that there has always been an interactive relationship between human biology and culture in the historical process. The brain is the biological base of culture and is deeply shaped by culture. The theory of “deep history” is commendable for its efforts to integrate multi-disciplinary knowledge and construct a coherent grand historical narrative. However, in the process of opposing the view of progressive history, Smail also abandoned the important ideological heritage of the Enlightenment era on the progress of human mind, making the idea of “neurohistory” unavoidably rough and unable to be effectively implemented in systematic historical writings.

Key wordsSmail’s Deep History, Prehistory, Neurohistory Mind

From Head of State Political System to Dynasty Rule:

Investigation on the Research Path of Early Roman Empire Political History


Wang Zhongxiao

Executive SummaryPolitical history is one of the traditional research directions in the field of Roman history. In the second half of the 19th century, the interest of Roman historians was mainly focused on Roman legal and political systems, and its representative figure was German historian Monson. By the end of the 20th century, the research on political culture was in the ascendant, while the research paradigm of institutional history had declined. A systematic review of the most influential and representative academic works in this research field since the Munson era is helpful to present and explain the three major turns in the research path of the early political history of the Roman Empire in the past century or so and their reasons. At the same time, this investigation also indicates the current research trend in this research field.

Key wordsThe Research Path of Early Roman Empire Political History Political Culture

 

Disputes on Terminology and Definition Criteria of “Middle Class” in Early Modern England


Li Xinkuan

Executive SummaryIn recent years, western social historians have proposed to use the term “middle class” to replace the term “middle class” commonly used in the past to refer to the social middle class formed in the process of social transformation in early modern Britain. Although it has been widely recognized and accepted by historians, it has also caused many disputes. It is not necessarily appropriate to completely replace “middle class” with “middle class” in all research fields, but when studying the economic and social phenomena in early modern Britain, using “middle class” is more in line with the complicated historical facts of social transformation at that time than “middle class”. Starting from the change of the distinction standard of human class and the description of the middle class at that time, the lifestyle is taken as the standard to define the middle class, and the group composition of the middle class is defined by the lifestyle, which can effectively resolve some academic disputes.

Key wordsThe Definition Standard of Middle Class in British History

 

 
 
 

 


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